Academic Learning Time Of Elementary Classroom Teachers In Physical Education

Por: Leonidas Kyriakides e Niki Tsangaridou.

Athens 2004: Pre-olympic Congress

Send to Kindle


Research on effective teaching conducted over the past several decades supported the conclusion that effective teachers utilized strategies and practices that produce higher learning outcomes than less effective teachers (Floden, 2001; Siedentop & Tannehill, 2000). Although, several studies used the ALT model to describe physical education teachers’ effectiveness (Siedentop & Tannehill, 2000), few studies have examined classroom teachers’ effectiveness in physical education programs (Placek & Randall, 1986). There is a need to increased the knowledge concerning classroom teachers effectiveness by empirically describing teacher behaviors that lead to high levels of learning outcomes since in most schools worldwide it is the classroom teachers who teach physical education to children and the quality of many elementary physical education programs depends on the teaching skills of classroom teachers (NASPE, 1998). Therefore, the purpose of this study was (a) to describe classroom teachers’ behaviors in physical education classes, (b) to explore how these behaviors affect their practices, and (c) to identify the extent to which teachers’ behaviors are associated with students’ learning outcomes.


An evaluation study was conducted in which 20 schools, 44 classes and 1042 pupils of the fourth year of primary school of Cyprus participated. Stratified sampling was used to select the 20 schools. Data regarding the nature of teaching situation (context level) and the learner involvement level, were collected using the ALT-PE instrument (Siedentop, Tousignant, & Parker, 1982). Eight members of the research team who were trained in the use of the ALT-PE instrument carried out observations. During the school year, each of the teacher was observed teaching three 40 minutes lessons. The alpha reliability coefficient was 0.88 and the inter-rater reliability coefficient ρ2 was 0.84. A performance test was also used in collecting data on student learning outcomes. The test was administered to the pupils of our sample both when they were at the beginning and at the end of year 4. Multilevel modeling was used as the method of data analysis.

Results/ Discussion

Findings suggested that the great majority of teachers devoted high rates of class time to management, transition, and waiting time. It was also found that the amount of time students were actually engaged in motor activity was low. Teachers devoted a great amount of subject matter motor engagement time in game play and less time to skill practice. Most of the variables used to describe teacher behavior are associated with teacher effectiveness in physical education. There is still a need, however, for continued research on classroom teachers ALT in physical education in order to explore and validate further the relationship of ALT-PE and student learning. Of further interest would be an examination of classroom teacher effectiveness in physical education in different countries. Findings from such studies would help researchers and teacher educators to design preservice and inservice physical education programs with an emphasis on practices and strategies which promote students learning outcomes.


  1. Floden, R. (2001). Handbook of research in teaching (pp. 3-16) (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American
    Educational Research Association.
  2. National Association for Sport and Physical Education (1998). Shape of the Nation Report: A survey of state physical education requirements. Reston, VA:AAHPERD.
  3. Placek, J., & Randall, L. (1986). Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 5, 157-165.
  4. Siedentop, D., & Tannehill, D. (2000). Developing teaching skills in physical education (4th ed.). Palo Alto, CA:
  5. Siedentop, D., Tousignant, M., & Parker, M. (1982). Academic learning Time - Physical Education Coding Manual. Columbus: The Ohio State University.



© 1996-2020 Centro Esportivo Virtual - CEV.
O material veiculado neste site poderá ser livremente distribuído para fins não comerciais, segundo os termos da licença da Creative Commons.