Bases Neurais da Motivação Altruísta em Grupo em Torcedores de Futebol

Por: Annerose Engel, Jean-claude Dreher, Jorge Mol, Patrícia Bado, Ricardo de Oliveira Souza, Roland Zahn, Sebastian Hoefle e Tiago Bortolini.

Nature - 2017

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Resumo

Os humanos têm uma forte necessidade de pertencer a grupos sociais e uma inclinação natural para beneficiar os membros do grupo. Embora os mecanismos psicológicos por trás da prosocialidade humana tenham sido extensivamente estudados, os sistemas neurais específicos que fazem a ponte entre a pertença do grupo e a motivação altruísta ainda precisam ser identificados. Aqui, usamos fandom de futebol como um enquadramento ecológico de participação em grupo para investigar os mecanismos neurais subjacentes ao comportamento altruísta em grupo de fãs do sexo masculino usando a ressonância magnética funcional relacionada a eventos. Projetamos uma medida de esforço com base na força de preensão manual para avaliar a motivação para ganhar dinheiro (i) para si mesmo, (ii) para os fãs anônimos do grupo interno ou (iii) para um grupo neutro de não fãs anônimos. Enquanto sinais de avaliação sobrepostos no córtex orbitofrontal medial (mOFC) foram observados para as três condições, o córtex cingulado subgenual (SCC) exibiu maior conectividade funcional com o mOFC, bem como respostas hemodinâmicas mais fortes para as decisões ingroup versus outgroup. Estas descobertas indicam um papel chave para o CEC, uma região anteriormente implicada em decisões altruístas e afiliação de grupo, em alinhar motivações altruístas com sistemas de avaliação neural no comportamento em grupo da vida real.

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