Biomechancis And Medicine in Swimming XI

Por: Jan Cabri (Editor), Per-ludvik Kjendlie (Editor) e Robert Keig Stallman (Editor).

391 páginas. Norwegian School of Sport Science. 2010

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Table of Contents

Preface 4

Biomechancis and Medicine in Swimming.; 40 Years of Swimming

Science. 4

Chapter 1. Invited Lectures 11

The Leon Lewillie Memorial Lecture: Biomechanics and Medicine in  Swimming, Past, Present and Future - Vilas-Boas, J.P.     12

Applying a Developmental Perspective to Aquatics and Swimming - Langendorfer, S.J.     20

The Psycho-Physiology of Overtraining and Athlete Burnout in Swimming - Lemyre, P.-N.     22

Biomechanical Services and Research for Top Level Swimming: the Australian Institute of Sport Model - Mason, B.R.     25

Aquatic Training in Rehabilitation and Preventive Medicine - Prins, J.28

Training at Real and Simulated Altitude in Swimming: Too High Expectations? - Rodríguez, F.A.     30

Muscle Fatigue in Swimming - Rouard, A.H.     33

Inter-Limb Coordination in Swimming - Seifert, L.     35

Chapter 2. Biomechanics 41

Comparison of Manikin Carry Performance by Lifeguards and Life-savers When Using Barefoot, Flexible and Fiber Fins - Abraldes,

J.A., Soares, S.2, Lima, A.B., Fernandes, R.J. Vilas-Boas, J.P.         42

Effect of Stroke Drills on Intra-cycle Hip Velocity in Front Crawl - Arellano R., Domínguez-Castells R., Perez-Infantes E., Sánchez E.    45

The Usefulness of the Fully Tethered Swimming for 50-m Breaststroke Performance Prediction - Barbosa A.C. Milivoj Dopsaj M.2, Okicic T. Andries Júnior O.     47

Joint Torque Request for Different Fin Uses - Gouvernet, G., Rao, G., Barla, C. 1, Baly, L., Grélot, L., Berton, E.     50

3D Computational Fluid-structure Interaction Model for the Estimation of Propulsive Forces of a Flexible Monofin Bideau, N. , Razafimahery, F. , Monier, L. , Mahiou, B. , Nicolas, G. , Bideau, B. , Rakotomanana, L.     52

Do Fastskin Swimsuits Influence Coordination in Front Crawl Swimming and Glide? - Chollet, D., Chavallard, F., Seifert, L., Lemaître, F.    55

The Effect of Wearing a Synthetic Rubber Suit on Hydrostatic Lift and Lung Volume - Cortesi, M. , Zamparo, P. , Tam, E., Da Boit, M., Gatta, G.     57

The Development of a Component Based Approach for Swim Start Analysis - Cossor, J.M., Slawson, S.E.², Justham, L.M., Conway, P.P.², West, A.A.     59

Hydrodynamic Characterization of the First and Second Glide Positions of the Underwater Stroke Technique in Breaststroke - Costa, L.; Ribeiro, J.; Figueiredo, P.; Fernandes, R.J.; Marinho, D.; Silva, A.J.,4; Rouboa, A.,4; Vilas-Boas, J.P.1; Machado, L.     62

Biomechanical Characterization of the Backstroke Start in Immerged and Emerged Feet Conditions - De Jesus, K., De Jesus, K., Figueiredo, P., Gonçalves, P., Pereira, S.M., Vilas-Boas, J.P. Fernandes, R.J.     64

Tethered Force Production in Standard and Contra-standard Sculling in Synchronized Swimming - Diogo, V., Soares, S., Tourino, C., Abraldes, J.A., Ferragut, C., Morouço, P., Figueiredo, P., Vilas-Boas, J.P., Fernandes, R.J.     67

Pulling Force Characteristics of 10 s Maximal Tethered Eggbeater Kick in Elite Water Polo Players: A Pilot Study - Dopsaj, M.     69

Motor Coordination During the Underwater Undulatory Swimming Phase of the Start for High Level Swimmers - Elipot, M. , 2, Houel, N. 2, Hellard, P. 2, Dietrich, G.     72

Relationship between Arm Coordination and Energy Cost in Front Crawl Swimming - Fernandes, R.J., Morais, P., Keskinen, K.L., Seifert, L., Chollet, D., Vilas-Boas, J.P.     74

Evaluation of the Validity of Radar for Measuring Throwing Velocities in Water Polo - Ferragut, C., Alcaraz, P.E.1, Vila, H., Abraldes, J.A., Rodriguez, N.     77

Biophysical Analysis of the 200m Front Crawl Swimming: a Case Study - Figueiredo, P., Sousa, A.1; Gonçalves, P., Pereira, S.M., Soares, S., Vilas-Boas, J.P., Fernandes, R.J.     79

Measuring Active Drag within the Different Phases of Front Crawl Swimming - Formosa, D. P., Mason, B.R. & Burkett, B. J.     82

The Mechanical Power Output in Water Polo Game: a Case Report - Gatta, G., Fantozzi, S., Cortesi, M., Patti, F., Bonifazi, M.     84

Comparison of Combinations of Vectors to define the Plane of the Hand in order to calculate the Attack Angle during the Sculling Motion - Gomes, L.E.1, Melo, M.O.1, La Torre, M. 1, Loss, J.F.     86

The Acute Effect of Front Crawl Sprint-resisted Swimming on the Direction of the Resultant Force of the Hand - Gourgoulis, V., Aggeloussis, N., Mavridis, G., Boli, A., Toubekis, A.G., Kasimatis, P., Vezos, N., Mavrommatis, G.     89

Relationship between Eggbeater Kick and Support Scull Skills, and Isokinetic Peak Torque - Homma, M.     91

A Biomechanical Comparison of Elite Swimmers Start Performance Using the Traditional Track Start and the New Kick Start - Honda, K.E., Sinclair, P.J., Mason, B.R. & Pease, D.L.     94

Kinematic Analysis of Undulatory Underwater Swimming during a Grab Start of National Level Swimmers - Houel N., Elipot M., Andrée F., Hellard H.     97

Comparison of Front Crawl Swimming Drag between Elite and Non-Elite Swimmers Using Pressure Measurement and Motion Analysis - Ichikawa, H., Miwa, T., Takeda, T., Takagi, H., Tsubakimoto, S.    100

Whole Body Observation and Visualized Motion Analysis of Swimming - Ito, S., Okuno, K.     102

A Full Body Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of the Freestyle Stroke of a Previous Sprint Freestyle World Record Holder - Keys, M.1; Lyttle, A.2; Blanksby, B.A.1 & Cheng, L.     105

An Analysis of an Underwater Turn for Butterfly and Breaststroke - Kishimoto, T.,Takeda, T.,Sugimoto, S., Tsubakimoto, S.2 and Takagi, H.    108

Mechanical and Propulsive Efficiency of Swimmers in Different Zones of Energy Supply - Kolmogorov, S.V., Vorontsov, A.R., Rumyantseva, O.A., Kochergin, A.B.     110

Prediction of Propulsive Force Exerted by the Hand in Swimming - Kudo, S. and Lee, M.K.         112

Arm Coordination, Active Drag and Propelling Efficiency in Front Crawl - Seifert, L., Schnitzler, C., Alberty, M., Chollet, D. 1, Toussaint, H.M.     115

Modelling Arm Coordination in Front Crawl - Seifert, L., Chollet, D.    117

Different Frequential Acceleration Spectrums in Front Crawl - Madera, J., González, L.M., García Massó, X., Benavent, J., Colado, J.C., Tella, V.     119

The Gliding Phase in Swimming: The Effect of Water Depth - Marinho, D.A., Barbosa, T.M., Mantripragada, N., Vilas-Boas, J.P., Rouard, A.H., Mantha, V.R., Rouboa, A.I., Silva, A.J.     122

A Method to Estimate Active Drag over a Range of Swimming Velocities which may be used to Evaluate the Stroke Mechanics of the Swimmer - Mason, B.R., Formosa, D.P., Toussaint, H.M.     124

50m Race Components Times Analysis Based on a Regression Analysis Model Applied to Age-Group Swimmers - Morales, E. , Arellano, R. , Femia, P. , Mercade, J. , Haljand R.     127

Regression Analysis Model Applied to Age-Group Swimmers: Study of Stroke Rate, Stroke Length and Stroke Index - Morales, E., Arellano, R., Femia, P., Mercade, J.     130

Advanced Biomechanical Simulations in Swimming Enabled by Extensions of Swimming Human Simulation Model “SWUM” - Nakashima, M., Kiuchi, H., Maeda, S., Kamiya, S., Nakajima, K.,  
Takagi, H.     132

Influences of the Back Plate on Competitive Swimming Starting Motion in Particular Projection Skill; Kinematical Characterisation of a Basic Head-out Aquatic Exercise during an Incremental Protocol - Oliveira, C., Teixeira, G., Costa, M.J., Marinho, D.A., Silva, A.J.,

Barbosa, T.M. ,     137

Influence of Swimming Speed on the Affected- and Unaffected-Arm Stroke Phases of Competitive Unilateral Arm Amputee Front Crawl Swimmers - Osborough, C.D., Payton, C.J., Daly, D.J.     140

Co-ordination Changes during a Maximal Effort 100 m Short Course Breaststroke Swim - Oxford, S., James, R., Price, M., Payton, C.     142

The Effect of Angle of Attack and Depth on Passive Drag - Pease, D.L. 1, Vennell, R.     145

Graphic Removal of Water Wave Impact in the Pool Wall during the Flip Turn - Pereira, S.M., Gonçalves, P., Fernandes, R.J., Machado, L., Roesler, H., Vilas-Boas, J.P.     148

Extending the Critical Force Model to Approach Critical Power in Tethered Swimming, and its Relationship to the Indices at Maximal Lactate Steady-State - Pessôa Filho, D.M., Denadai, B.S.     151

Preliminary Results of a “Multi-2D” Kinematic Analysis of “Straight- vs. Bent-arm” Freestyle Swimming, Using High-Speed Videogra-hy. - Prins, J.H., Murata, N.M., & Allen, J. S. III.     154

Biomechanical Factors Influencing Tumble Turn Performance of Elite Female Swimmers - Puel, F., Morlier, J., Cid, M., Chollet, D., Hellard, P.     155

Front Crawl and Backstroke Arm Coordination in Swimmers with Down Syndrome - Querido, A., Marques-Aleixo, I., Figueiredo, P., Seifert, L., Chollet, D., Vilas-Boas, J.P., Daly, D.J., Corredeira, R., Fernandes, R.J.     157

Identifying Determinant Movement Sequences in Monofin Swimming Technique - Rejman, M. & Staszkiewicz, A.     160

Evaluation of the Gliding Capacity of a Swimmer - Roig, A.     163

Effects of a BlueseventyTM Bodysuit on Spatial-temporal and Coordinative Parameters During an All-out 50-m Front Crawl - Silveira, R.P., Kanefuku, J.Y., Moré, F.C., Castro, F.A.S.    165

Fatigue Analysis of 100 Meters All-Out Front Crawl Using Surface EMG - Stirn, I. Jarm, T., Kapus, V., Strojnik, V.     168

Comparison Among Three Types of Relay Starts in Competitive Swimming - Takeda, T., Takagi, H., Tsubakimoto, S.     170

A Study About the 3D Acceleration in Front Crawl and its Relation With Performance - Tella, V., Madera, J., Colado, J.C., Mateu, J., García Massó, X., González, L.M.     173

Aquatic Space Activities – Practice Needs Theory - Ungerechts, B., Klauck, J².     175

Analysis of Swim Turning, Underwater Gliding and Stroke Resumption Phases in Top Division Swimmers using a Wearable Inertial Sensor Device - Vannozzi, G., Donati, M., Gatta G. & Cappozzo, A.178

Influence of Swimming Start Styles on Biomechanics and Angular  Momentum - Vantorre, J., Seifert, L., Bideau, B., Nicolas, G., Fernandes, R.J., Vilas-Boas, J.P., Chollet, D.     180

The Validity and Reliability of a Procedure for Competition Analysis in Swimming Based on Individual Distance Measurements - Veiga, S., Cala, A., González Frutos, P., Navarro, E.     182

An Analysis of the Underwater Gliding Motion in Collegiate Competitive Swimmers - Wada, T., Sato, T., Ohishi, K., Tago, T., Izumi, T., Matsumoto, T., Yamamoto, N., Isaka, T., Shimoyama, Y.     185

Head Out Swimming in Water Polo: a Comparison with Front Crawl in Young Female Players - Zamparo, P., Falco, S.     187

Chapter 3. Physiology and Bioenergetics 191

Models of Vertical Swimming Abilities in Elite Female Senior Water Polo Players - Dopsaj, M.     192

Critical Velocity and the Velocity at Maximal Lactate Steady State in Swimming - Espada, M.A., Alves, F.B.     194

Modelling the VO2 Slow Component in Elite Long Distance Swimmers at the Velocity Associated with Lactate Threshold - Hellard, P. , Dekerle, J., Nesi, X., Toussaint, J.F., Houel, N., Hausswirth, C.     196

The Impact of Tension in Abdominal and Lumbar Musculature in Swimmers on Ventilatory and Cardiovascular Functions - Henrich, T.W., Pankey, R.B. Soukup, G.J.     199

Relationship between Propelling Efficiency and Swimming Performance in Elite Swimmers. - Huang, Z., Kurobe, K., Nishiwaki, M., Ozawa, G., Tanaka, T., Taguchi, N., Ogita, F.     201

Effect of Increasing Energy Cost on Arm Coordination at Different Exercise Intensities in Elite Sprint Swimmers - Komar, J.1, Leprêtre, P.M.2, Alberty, M.3, Vantorre, J.1, Fernandes, R.J.4, Hellard, P.,6,  Chollet, D.1, Seifert, L.     204

Swimming and Respiratory Muscle Endurance Training: A Case Study - Lemaître, F., Chavallard, F., Chollet, D.     206

Heart Rate Responses During Gradually Increasing and Decreasing Exercise in Water - Nishimura, K., Nose, Y., Yoshioka, A., Kawano, H., Onodera, S., Takamoto, N.     208

Effects of Recently Developed Swimwear on Drag During Front Crawl Swimming; - Ogita, F., Huang, Z., Kurobe, K., Ozawa, G., Taguchi,T., Tanaka, T.     211

Relationship between Heart Rate and Water Depth in the Standing Position - Onodera, S., Yoshioka, A., Matsumoto, N., Takahara, T., Nose, Y. 1, Hirao, M., Seki, K., Nishimura, K., Baik, W., Hara, H., Murakawa, T.     213

Oxygen Uptake Kinetics Around the Respiratory Compensation Point in Swimming - Pessôa Filho, D.M., Reis, J.F., Alves, F.B., Denadai, B.S.     215

Hormonal, Immune, Autonomic and Mood State Variation in the Initial Preparation Phase of a Winter Season, in Portuguese Male Swimmers - Rama, L., Alves, F., Teixeira, A.     217

Oxygen Uptake Kinetics and Performance in Swimming - Reis, J.F., Alves, F.B.     220

Maximum Blood Lactate Concentration after two Different Specific Tests in Freestyle Swimming - Rozi, G., Thanopoulos, V., Dopsaj, M. 222

Can Blood Glucose Threshold be Determined in Swimmers Early in the Swimming Season? - Sengoku, Y., Nakamura, K., Takeda, T. , Nabekura, Y., Tsubakimoto, S.     224

The Effects of Rubber Swimsuits on Swimmers Using a Lactic Acid Curve Test - Shiraki, T., Wakayoshi, K., Hata, H., Yamamoto, T., Tomikawa, M.     226

Some Factors Limiting Energy Supply in 200m Front Crawl Swimming - Strumbelj, B., Usaj, A., Kapus, J., Bednarik, J.     228

Lactate Comparison Between 100m Freestyle and Tethered Swimming of Equal Duration - Thanopoulos, V., Rozi, G., Platanou, T.    230

Blood Lactate Concentration and Clearance in Elite Swimmers During Competition - Vescovi, J.D., Falenchuk, O., Wells G.D.     233

Determination and Validity of Critical Velocity in Front Crawl, Arm Stroke and Leg Kick as an Index of Endurance Performance in Competitive Swimmers - Wakayoshi, K., Shiraki, T., Ogita, F., Kitajima, M.     236

Differences In Methods Determining The Anaerobic Threshold Of Triathletes In The Water - Zoretić, D., Wertheimer, V., Leko, G.     238

Chapter 4. Training and Performance 241

Physiological Responses and Performance Characteristics of 200m Continuous Swimming and 4x50m ‘’Broken Swimming’’ with Different Rest Intervals - Beidaris, N., Botonis, P. and Platanou, T.    242

General Indexes of Crawl Swimming Velocity of Junior Water Polo Players in a Match - Bratusa, F.Z., Perisic, S.M., Dopsaj, J.M.    245

Bench Press and Leg Press Strength and its Relationship with In-Water Force and Swimming Performance when Measured in-season in Male and Female Age-group Swimmers - Carl, D.L., Leslie, N., Dickerson, T., Griffin, B., Marksteiner, A.     247

Effect of Start Time Feedback on Swimming Start Performance. - de la Fuente, B. and Arellano, R.     249

Predictors of Performance in Pre-Pubertal and Pubertal Male and Female Swimmers - Douda, H.T., Toubekis, A.G., Georgiou, Ch., Gourgoulis, V. and Tokmakidis, S.P.     252

Changes of Competitive Performance, Training Load and Tethered Force During Tapering in Young Swimmers - Drosou, E., Toubekis, A.G., Gourgoulis, V., Thomaidis, S., Douda, H., Tokmakidis, S.P.    254

Perceived Exertion at Different Percents of The Critical Velocity in Front Crawl - Franken, M., Diefenthaeler, F., de Souza Castro, F.A. 257

Ventilatory and Biomechanical Responses in Short vs. Long Interval Training in Elite Long Distance Swimmers. - Hellard, P., Dekerle, J., Nesi, X., Toussaint, J.F., Houel, N.1, Hausswirth, C.     259

Talent Prognosis in Young Swimmers - Hohmann, A.1, Seidel, I.    262

Determination of Lactate Threshold with Four Different Analysis Techniques for Pool Testing in Swimmers; Competitive Systematization in Age-group Swimming: An Evaluation of Performances, Maturational Considerations, and International Paradigms - Kojima,

K. and Stager, J.M.     267

Effects of Reduced Knee-bend on 100 Butterfly Performance: A Case Study Using the Men’s Asian and Japanese Record Holder - Ide, T., Yoshimura, Y., Kawamoto, K., Takise, S., Kawakami, T.     270

Stability and Prediction of 100-m Breaststroke Performance During The Careers of Elite Swimmers - Costa, M.J.; Marinho, D.A., Reis, V.M., Silva, A.J., Bragada, J.A., Barbosa, T.M.,4     272

Effect of Subjective Effort on Stroke Timing in Breaststroke Swimming - Ohba, M., Sato, S., Shimoyama, Y., Sato, D.     274

Models for Assessing General Horizontal Swimming Abilities of Junior Water Polo Players According to Playing Position - Özkol, Z., Dopsaj, M., Thanopoulos, V., Bratusa, Z.     276

A Markov Chain Model of Elite Water Polo Competition - Pfeiffer, M., Hohmann, A., Siegel, A., Böhnlein, S.     278

Throwing Accuracy of Water Polo Players of Different Training Age and Fitness Levels in a Static Position and after Previous Swimming - Platanou, T. and Botonis, P.     281

The Effect of Cognition-Based Technique Training on Stroke Length in Age-Group Swimmers - Schmidt, A.C., Ungerechts, B.E., Buss, W.1 & Schack, T.     283

Assessing Mental Workload at Maximal Intensity in Swimming Using the NASA-TLX Questionnaire - Schnitzler, C., Seifert, L., Chollet, D.     286

Does the Y-Intercept of a Regression Line in the Critical Velocity Concept Represent the Index for Evaluating Anaerobic Capacity? - Shimoyama, Y., Okita, K., Baba,Y., Sato, D.     288

Evaluation of Force Production and Fatigue using an Anaerobic Test Performed by Differently Matured Swimmers - Soares, S., Silva, R., Aleixo, I., Machado, L., Fernandes, R.J., Maia, J., Vilas-Boas, J.P.    291

Identification of a Bias in the Natural Progression of Swim Performance - Stager, J.M., Brammer, C.L., Tanner, D.A.     294

Tethered Swimming as an Evaluation Tool of Single Arm-Stroke Force - Toubekis, A.G., Gourgoulis, V., Tokmakidis, S.P.     296

Blood Lactate Responses During Interval Training Corresponding to Critical Velocity in Age-Group Female Swimmers - Tsalis, G., Toubekis, A.G., Michailidou, D., Gourgoulis, V., Douda, H., Tokmakidis, S.P.     299

Monitoring Swim Training Based on Mean Intensity Strain and Individual Stress Reaction of an Elite Swimmer - Ungerechts, B.E., Steffen, R., and Vogel, K.     302

Accelerometry as a Means of Quantifying Training Distance and Speed in Competitive Swimmers. - Wright, B.V. , Hinman, M.G. , Stager, J.M.     305

Critical Swimming Speed Obtained by the 200-400 Meters Model in Young Swimmers - Zacca, R., Castro, F.A.S.     307

Chapter 5. Education, Advice and Biofeedback 311

The Evolution of Swimming Science Research: Content analysis of the “Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming” Proceedings Books from 1971 to 2006 - Barbosa, T.M., Pinto, E., Cruz, A.M., Marinho, D.A.,, Silva, A.J., Reis, V.M., Costa, M.J., Queirós ,T.M.     312

Quantitative Data Supplements Qualitative Evaluations of Butterfly Swimming - Becker, T.J., Havriluk, R.     314

The Effect of Restricting the Visual Perceptual Task in the Temporal Organization of Crawl Swimming: Surface Characteristics - Brito, C.A.F., Belvis, W.C., Oliveira, M. 2     317

Analyses of Instruction for Breath Control While Swimming the Breaststroke - Hara, H., Yoshioka, A., Matsumoto, N., Nose, Y., Watanabe, R., Shibata, Y., Onodera, S.     319

Performance Level Differences in Swimming: Relative Contributions of Strength and Technique - Havriluk, R.     321

Evaluation of Kinaesthetic Differentiation Abilities in Male and Female Swimmers - Invernizzi, P.L., Longo, S., Scurati, R., Michielon, G.     324

Swimming in Eyesight Deprivation: Relationships with Sensory-Perception, Coordination and laterality - Invernizzi, P.L., Longo, S., Tadini, F., Scurati, R.     326

Progression in Teaching Beginning Swimming: Rank Order by Degree of Difficulty - Junge, M., Blixt, T., Stallman, R.K, ,     329

The Construct Validity of a Traditional 25m Test of Swimming Competence - Junge, M., Blixt, T., Stallman, R.K.,     331

Using a Scalogram to Identify an Appropriate Instructional Order for Swimming Items - Langendorfer, S.J., Chaya, J.A.     333

Imagery Training in Young Swimmers: Effects on the Flow State and on Performance - Scurati, R., Michielon, G., Longo, S., Invernizzi, P.L.     336

Shallow or Deep Water for Adjustment? A Study in Children Aged 3 to 6 Years - Scurati, R., Michielon, G., Longo, S., Invernizzi, P.L.    339

The Effect of a Target Sound Made by a Model Swimmer’s Dolphin Kick Movement on Another Swimmer’s Dolphin Kick Performance - Shimojo, H., Ichikawa, H., Tsubakimoto, S., Takagi, H.     341

Tendencies in Natural Selection of High Level Young Swimmers - TimakovaT.S., Klyuchnikova M.V.     343

The Cognitive Interplay Between Sensory and Biomechanical Features While Executing Flip Turns Wearing Different Swim Suits - Vieluf, S., Ungerechts, B.E., Toussaint, H.M., Lex, H. 1, Schack, T.     346

The Role of Verbal Information about Sensory Experience from Movement Apparatus in the Process of Swimming Economization - Zatoń, K.     349

Chapter 6. Medicine and Water Safety 353

Crucial Findings from the 4W Model of Drowning for Practical and Teaching Applications - Avramidis, S., McKenna, J., Long, J., Butterly, R., Llewellyn, J.D.     354

Swimming, Cycling, Running and Cardiovascular Health - Bagheri, A.B., Mohebbi, H.D., Azizi, M.H., Saiiari, A.R.     357

Analysis of Aerobic/Anaerobic Performance in Functionally Disabled

Swimmers: Low Classes vs High Classes - De Aymerich, J., Benavent, J., Tella, V., Colado, J.C., González, L.M., García-Massó, X. 2, Madera, J.     359

Athletic Rehabilitation of a Platform Diver for Return to Competition after a Shoulder Dislocation     - Fujinawa, O., Kondo, Y., Tachikawa, K., Jigami, H., Hirose, K., Matsunaga, H.     362

Comparisons of Water- and Land-based Physical Activity Interventions in Japanese Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome - Hanai, A. and Yamatsu, K.     364

Estimation Method for Energy Expenditure by Acceleration of Human Head during Water Walking - Kaneda, K., Ohgi, Y., Tanaka, C.  366

Real and Perceived Swimming Competency, Risk Estimation, and Preventing Drowning among New Zealand Youth - Moran, K.368

Keeping the Safety Messages Simple: The International Task Force on Open-Water Recreational Drowning Prevention - Quan, L., Bennett, E., Moran, K. (co-chairs)     371

Immune Status Changes and URTI Incidence in the Initial 7 Weeks of a Winter Training Season in Portuguese Swimmers - Rama, L., Alves, F.B., Rosado, F., Azevedo, S., Matos, A., Henriques, A., Paiva, A. 3, Teixeira, AM.     374

Swimming Ability, Perceived Competence and Perceived Risk among Young Adults - Stallman, R.K., Dahl D.1, Moran, K., Kjendlie, P.L.,377

Movement Economy in Breaststroke Swimming: A Survival Perspective - Stallman R.K., Major J., Hemmer S., Haavaag G.     379

Post-exercise Hypotension and Blood Lipoprotein Changes following Swimming Exercise - Tanaka, H., Sommerlad, S.M., Renzi, C.P., Barnes, J.N., and Nualnim, N.     381

A Conceptual Paper on the Benefits of a Non-Governmental Search and Rescue Organization - Wengelin, M., de Wet, T.     384

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