Cardiovascular And Endocrine-inflammatory Biomarkers In Response To Aerobic Exercise Training In Normotensive And Hypertensive Postmenopausal Women

Por: A. P. Jarrete, A. Zanesco, H. Nunes Araujo, I. P. Novais e M. A. Delbin.

IX Congresso Internacional de Educação Física e Motricidade Humana XV Simpósio Paulista de Educação Física

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Menopause is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) as compared with premenopausal women. Estrogen deficiency has been proposed to explain partly this phenomenon. Furthermore, some studies demonstrated a positive association between a low grade chronic systemic inflammation, increased oxidative stress and CVD in this phase. On the other hand, it is known that physical activity is important both in prevention and treatment of CVD. Although several studies have examined cardiovascular and endocrineinflammatory biomarkers, no one evaluated these mediators altogether in response to aerobic exercise training (AET) in postmenopausal women. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether AET would alter cardiovascular and endocrine-inflammatory biomarkers in normotensive (NT) and hypertensive (HT) postmenopausal women in a similar manner. Methods: This study was approved by Ethics Committee - 37 postmenopausal women who were not on hormone replacement therapy (56.6 ± 0.8 yrs, NT=19 and HT=18) enrolled in the study. Anthropometrics (BMI/waist circumference) and cardiovascular parameters (office blood pressure/rest heart rate) were measured at initial and final time of the study. Biochemical analyses: lipid profile, glycemia, cortisol, leptin, nitrite/nitrate (NOx-), malondialdehyde (MDA), IL-1â, cyclic GMP and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were also evaluated. AET consisted of 24 sessions, 3 days/week - 30 to 40 min, moderate intensity on treadmill. Results: In HT group, AET reduced BMI (-1.5%) without changing in waist circumference in both groups. Neither lipid profile nor glycemia were changed in both groups in response to AET. On the other hand, AET was effective in lowering office blood pressure in HT group (systolic: -4.4 mmHg and diastolic: -4.3 mmHg) that was accompanied by increased in plasma NOx- (+37.7%) and cGMP (+30.8%) levels. Furthermore, rest heart rate (-3.9%) was also reduced in HT group. In NT group, we found a decrease in plasma ADMA levels (-6%) that was accompanied by increase in plasma cGMP (+21.9%) without changing in blood pressure. Regarding MDA levels, no changes were observed in both groups in response to AET, however, the HT group showed higher concentration (+16%) as compared with NT at baseline. Both groups increased SOD activity (NT: +90.2% and HT: +86.6%) without changes in CAT. Cortisol, IL-1â and leptin levels were not altered in response to AET in both groups. A positive correlation was found between systolic blood pressure and cortisol levels only in HT group at baseline. Conclusions: In HT postmenopausal women, AET promoted cardiovascular benefit with improvement of NO/cGMP signaling pathway without changing in endocrine-inflammatory mediators. Even though an increase in cGMP levels with reduction in plasma ADMA were detected in NT group, these alterations did not affect blood pressure. Financial Support: FAPESP, CNPq




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