Cause and prophylaxis of heel tendon hurt in sports games for indirect force

Por: Guang Xin Dong, Rong-hui Zhou, Zhao-hong Shi e Zhi-gan Li.

Athens 2004: Pre-olympic Congress

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There are many heel tendon fractured cases in sports happened around us as a result of indirect forces, such as muscle fiercely contracted, stumbled, fell, dodged, contused, turned round, etc, but not as a result of direct forces, such as collided, crushed, smash, grinded, crashed or knife wounded, etc. The purpose of this research was to analyze the causes and find the protection measures, in order to avoid such injuries from occurring again.


This article examined 34 cases of heel tendon fractures in sports due to indirect forces by investigating the records’ data, visits, interviews and clinical diagnosing. In total, there are 22 males and 8 females, and 4 cases that occurred on the same person for both left and right heels’ tendon.


The sports games that could easily cause heel tendon injuries are Tennis (9 cases), Basketball (8 cases), Football (5 cases), Track and Field (5 cases), Gymnastics (2 cases), Badminton (2 cases), Weight Lifting (1 case), and the others (2 cases). It mostly happened in recent years and the ages are among 35-55 years old. Furthermore, most of them received professional sport training at a younger age.


The results showed that the reasons which caused heel tendon fractures were as follows: 1. The heel tendon emerged degenerative pathological changes and became weaker, and easily broke. 2. The part of heel tendon excessive became exhausted: 25 fractures were due to vigorous exercises for more than 2 hours or undertaking vigorous exercise after standing still continuously for more than 5 hours. 3. There were not enough warming up exercises: 9 cases were due to deficient warming up exercises followed by vigorous exercises. 4. The leg muscle exerted force unreasonably: In order to maintain the balance of the body, gastrocnemius and flounder contracted rapidly and strongly, producing huge tensile force to the heel tendon, and causing injury or fracture. 5. With aging, the heel tendon easily gets tired and injured, but the strength recedes more slowly, which caused an unbalance between the ability of the heel tendon and the leg muscle to bear and develop force. 6. Another possible explanation is that nowadays people eat more genetically modified foods and hormone containing meat, which maybe caused an increase in the tendon fragility. The preventive measures are: initially to prevent excessive fatigue in sport games, do plenty of warming up prior to exercising, and finally, try to eat less hormone containing meat and less genetically modified foods.


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