Comunicação Entre Pais e Filhos no Esporte: Superando a Diferença Entre Teoria e Pesquisa

Por: Charles Ryan Dunn, Elizabeth Dorrance Hall, Marshall Xavier Grimm e Travis Edward Dorsch.

Journal Of Amateur Sport - Jas - v.3 - n.3 - 2017

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Resumo

A comunicação pais-filhos é parte integrante da aquisição de resultados de desenvolvimento positivos do esporte. Este documento oferece quadros e teorias interdisciplinares úteis para futuros pesquisadores à medida que investigam questões relativas à comunicação no esporte juvenil organizado. Nós propomos que esse trabalho seja aprimorado quando fundamentado na família, no desenvolvimento humano e na teoria e literatura de comunicação interpessoal. Especificamente, os quadros teóricos dessas áreas auxiliam os pesquisadores na determinação de questões de pesquisa, escolhendo metodologias apropriadas e, o mais importante, na interpretação dos achados. À medida que os pesquisadores tentam entender melhor a influência dos pais no esporte, o papel de processos familiares específicos, como a comunicação, lançará luz sobre os mecanismos potenciais que impulsionam os resultados de desenvolvimento da juventude. Este conhecimento provavelmente levará a melhores resultados para os jovens que participam do esporte e melhores relações entre os membros da família dentro e fora do contexto esportivo. Ao obter uma maior compreensão desse fenômeno, os pesquisadores terão um conjunto mais completo de ferramentas para educar pais, administradores e treinadores de forma baseada em evidências.

Referências

Becvar, D. S., & Becvar, R. J. (2006). Family therapy: A systemic integration (6th ed). Boston, MA: Pearson Higher Ed.

Blazo, J. A., Czech, D., Carson, S., & Dees, W. (2014). A qualitative investigation of the sibling sport achievement experience. Sport Psychologist, 28, 36-47. doi:10.1123/tsp.2012-0089

Bloom, L. C., & Drane, D. (2008). Parents' sideline comments: exploring the reality of a growing issue. Athletic Insight: The Online Journal of Sport Psychology, 10.

Bowker, A., Boekhoven, B., Nolan, A., Bauhaus, S., Glover, P., Powell, T., & Taylor, S. (2009). Naturalistic observations of spectator behavior at youth hockey games. The Sport Psychologist, 23, 301-316. doi:10.1123/tsp.23.3.301

Brodie, G. D., & MacGeorge E. L. (2015). Supportive communication theories: Dual-process theory of supportive message outcomes and advice response theory. In D. O. Braithwaite & P. Schrodt (Eds.), Engaging theories in interpersonal communication (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Broderick, C. B. (1993). Understanding family process: Basics of family systems theory. Thousand Oak, CA: Sage.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (2005). Making human beings human: Bioecological perspectives on human development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.

Bronfenbrenner, U., & Ceci, S. J. (1994). Nature-nurture reconceptualized in developmental perspective: A bioecological model. Psychological Review, 101, 568-586. doi:10.1037/0033-295x.101.4.568

Caughlin, J. P. (2010). A multiple goals theory of personal relationships: Conceptual integration and program overview. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 27, 824-848.

Côté, J. (1999). The influence of the family in the development of talent in sport. The Sport Psychologist, 13, 395-417. doi:10.1123/tsp.13.4.395

Dailey, R. M. (2006). Confirmation in parent–adolescent relationships and adolescent openness: Toward extending confirmation theory. Communication Monographs, 73, 434-458. doi:10.1080/03637750601055432

Dailey, R. M. (2010). Testing components of confirmation: How acceptance and challenge from mothers, fathers, and siblings are related to adolescent self-concept. Communication Monographs, 77, 592-617. doi:10.1080/03637751.2010.499366

Dorrance Hall, E., Ruth-McSwain, A., & Ferrara, M.H. (2016). Models of health: Exploring memorable messages received from parents about diet and exercise. Journal of Communication in Healthcare, 9, 247-255. doi:10.1080/17538068.2016.1187892

Dorsch, T. E., Smith, A. L., & McDonough, M. H. (2009). Parents' perceptions of child-to-parent socialization in organized youth sport. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 31, 444-468. doi:10.1123/jsep.31.4.444

Dorsch, T. E., Smith, A. L., Wilson, S. R., & McDonough, M. H. (2015a). Parent goals and verbal sideline behavior in organized youth sport. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 4, 19-35. doi:10.1037/spy0000025

Dorsch, T. E., Smith, A. L., & McDonough, M. H. (2015b). Early socialization of parents through organized youth sport. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 4, 3–18. doi:10.1037/spy0000021

Ellis, K. (2002). Perceived parental confirmation: Development and validation of an instrument. Southern Journal of Communication, 67, 319-334.

Emerson, R. M. (1976). Social exchange theory. Annual Review of Sociology, 2, 335-362.

Feng, B., & MacGeorge, E. L. (2010). The influences of message and source factors on advice outcomes. Communication Research, 37, 553-575. doi:10.1177/0093650210368258

Fraser-Thomas, J. L., Côté, J., & Deakin, J. (2005). Youth sport programs: An avenue to foster positive youth development. Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy, 10, 19-40. doi:10.1080/1740898042000334890

Gottman, J. M., Notarius, C., Gonso, J., & Markman, H. (1976). A couple’s guide to communication. Champaign, IL: Research Press.

Hennessy, D. A., & Schwartz, S. (2007). Personal predictors of spectator aggression at little league baseball games. Violence and Victims, 22, 205-215. doi:10.1891/088667007780477384

Holt, N. L., Tamminen, K. A., Black, D. E., Sehn, Z. L., & Wall, M. P. (2008). Parental involvement in competitive youth sport settings. Psychology of sport and exercise, 9, 663-685. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.08.001

Jeffery-Tosoni, S., Fraser-Thomas, J., & Baker, J. (2015). Parent involvement in Canadian youth hockey: Experiences and perspectives of peewee players. Journal of Sport Behavior, 38, 3-25.

Keegan, R. J., Harwood, C. G., Spray, C. M., & Lavallee, D. E. (2009). A qualitative investigation exploring the motivational climate in early career sports participants: Coach, parent and peer influences on sport motivation. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10, 361-372. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2008.12.003

Knight, C. J., Boden, C. M., & Holt, N. L. (2010). Junior tennis players’ preferences for parental behaviors. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 22, 377-391. doi:10.1080/10413200.2010.495324

Knight, C. J., & Holt, N. L. (2014). Parenting in youth tennis: Understanding and enhancing children's experiences. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15, 155-164. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.10.010 

Koerner, A. F., & Fitzpatrick, M. A. (2002a). Toward a theory of family communication. Communication theory, 12, 70-91. doi:10.1093/ct/12.1.70

Koerner, A. F., & Fitzpatrick, M. A. (2002b). Understanding family communication patterns and family functioning: The role of conversation orientation and conformity orientation. Communication Yearbook, 26, 37-69. doi:10.1207/s15567419cy2601_2

Koerner, A. F., & Schrodt, P. (2014). An introduction to the special issue on family communication patterns theory. Journal of Family Communication, 14, 1-15. doi:10.1080/15267431.2013.857328

LaVoi, N. M., & Stellino, M. B. (2008). The relation between perceived parent-created sport climate and competitive male youth hockey players' good and poor sport behaviors. The Journal of Psychology, 142, 471-496. doi: 10.3200/jrlp.142.5.471-496 

MacGeorge, E. L., Guntzviller, L. M., Hanasono, L. K., & Feng, B. (2013). Testing advice response theory in interactions with friends. Communication Research, 43, 211–231. doi:10.1177/0093650213510938

Mehrabian, A., & Wiener, M. (1967). Decoding of inconsistent communications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 6, 109-114. doi:10.1037/h0024532

National Council of Youth Sports. (2008). Report on trends and participation in organized youth sport. Stuart, FL: Author. Retrieved from http://www .ncys.org/pdfs/2008/2008-ncys-market-research- report.pdf Nicholls,

Omli, J., & LaVoi, N. M. (2006). Background anger in youth sport: A perfect storm. Journal of Sport Behavior, 32, 242-260.

Omli, J., LaVoi, N. M., & Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2008). Towards an understanding of parent spectator behavior at youth sport events. The Journal of Youth Sports, 3, 30-33.

Pink, D. (Author). (2015, June 30). Why you should always skip your kids’ baseball games. PBS Newshour. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/always-skip-kids-baseball-games/

Ravitch, S. M., & Riggan, M. (2016). Reason & rigor: How conceptual frameworks guide research. Washington, DC: Sage Publications.

Rosa, E. M., & Tudge, J. (2013). Urie Bronfenbrenner's theory of human development: its evolution from ecology to bioecology. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 5, 243-258. doi: 10.1111/jftr.12022 

Dunn, C. R., Dorsch, T. E., King, M. Q., & Rothlisberger, K. J. (2016). The impact of family financial investment on perceived parent pressure and child enjoyment and commitment in organized youth sport. Family Relations, 65, 287-299. doi:10.1111/fare.12193

Sieburg, E. (1985). Family communication: An integrated systems approach. New York, NY: Gardner Press, Inc.

Stafford, L. (2008). Social exchange theories: Calculating the rewards and costs of personal relationships. In L. A. Baxter & D. O. Braithwaite (Eds.), Engaging theories in interpersonal communication: Multiple perspectives, (p. 377-389). Los Angeles, CA: Sage. doi:10.4135/9781483329529.n28

Trenholm, S. & Jensen, A. (2013). Interpersonal communication (7th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Van Swol, L. M. (2011). Forecasting another’s enjoyment versus giving the right answer: Trust, shared values, task effects, and confidence in improving the acceptance of advice. International Journal of Forecasting, 27, 103-120. doi:10.1016/j.ijforecast.2010.03.002

Warner, S., Dixon, M., & Leierer, S. (2015). Using youth sport to enhance parents' sense of community. Journal of Applied Sport Management, 7, 45-63.

Becvar, D. S., & Becvar, R. J. (2006). Family therapy: A systemic integration (6th ed). Boston, MA: Pearson Higher Ed.

Blazo, J. A., Czech, D., Carson, S., & Dees, W. (2014). A qualitative investigation of the sibling sport achievement experience. Sport Psychologist, 28, 36-47. doi:10.1123/tsp.2012-0089

Bloom, L. C., & Drane, D. (2008). Parents' sideline comments: exploring the reality of a growing issue. Athletic Insight: The Online Journal of Sport Psychology, 10.

Bowker, A., Boekhoven, B., Nolan, A., Bauhaus, S., Glover, P., Powell, T., & Taylor, S. (2009). Naturalistic observations of spectator behavior at youth hockey games. The Sport Psychologist, 23, 301-316. doi:10.1123/tsp.23.3.301

Brodie, G. D., & MacGeorge E. L. (2015). Supportive communication theories: Dual-process theory of supportive message outcomes and advice response theory. In D. O. Braithwaite & P. Schrodt (Eds.), Engaging theories in interpersonal communication (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Broderick, C. B. (1993). Understanding family process: Basics of family systems theory. Thousand Oak, CA: Sage.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (2005). Making human beings human: Bioecological perspectives on human development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.

Bronfenbrenner, U., & Ceci, S. J. (1994). Nature-nurture reconceptualized in developmental perspective: A bioecological model. Psychological Review, 101, 568-586. doi:10.1037/0033-295x.101.4.568

Caughlin, J. P. (2010). A multiple goals theory of personal relationships: Conceptual integration and program overview. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 27, 824-848.

Côté, J. (1999). The influence of the family in the development of talent in sport. The Sport Psychologist, 13, 395-417. doi:10.1123/tsp.13.4.395

Dailey, R. M. (2006). Confirmation in parent–adolescent relationships and adolescent openness: Toward extending confirmation theory. Communication Monographs, 73, 434-458. doi:10.1080/03637750601055432

Dailey, R. M. (2010). Testing components of confirmation: How acceptance and challenge from mothers, fathers, and siblings are related to adolescent self-concept. Communication Monographs, 77, 592-617. doi:10.1080/03637751.2010.499366

Dorrance Hall, E., Ruth-McSwain, A., & Ferrara, M.H. (2016). Models of health: Exploring memorable messages received from parents about diet and exercise. Journal of Communication in Healthcare, 9, 247-255. doi:10.1080/17538068.2016.1187892

Dorsch, T. E., Smith, A. L., & McDonough, M. H. (2009). Parents' perceptions of child-to-parent socialization in organized youth sport. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 31, 444-468. doi:10.1123/jsep.31.4.444

Dorsch, T. E., Smith, A. L., Wilson, S. R., & McDonough, M. H. (2015a). Parent goals and verbal sideline behavior in organized youth sport. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 4, 19-35. doi:10.1037/spy0000025

Dorsch, T. E., Smith, A. L., & McDonough, M. H. (2015b). Early socialization of parents through organized youth sport. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 4, 3–18. doi:10.1037/spy0000021

Ellis, K. (2002). Perceived parental confirmation: Development and validation of an instrument. Southern Journal of Communication, 67, 319-334.

Emerson, R. M. (1976). Social exchange theory. Annual Review of Sociology, 2, 335-362.

Feng, B., & MacGeorge, E. L. (2010). The influences of message and source factors on advice outcomes. Communication Research, 37, 553-575. doi:10.1177/0093650210368258

Fraser-Thomas, J. L., Côté, J., & Deakin, J. (2005). Youth sport programs: An avenue to foster positive youth development. Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy, 10, 19-40. doi:10.1080/1740898042000334890

Gottman, J. M., Notarius, C., Gonso, J., & Markman, H. (1976). A couple’s guide to communication. Champaign, IL: Research Press.

Hennessy, D. A., & Schwartz, S. (2007). Personal predictors of spectator aggression at little league baseball games. Violence and Victims, 22, 205-215. doi:10.1891/088667007780477384

Holt, N. L., Tamminen, K. A., Black, D. E., Sehn, Z. L., & Wall, M. P. (2008). Parental involvement in competitive youth sport settings. Psychology of sport and exercise, 9, 663-685. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.08.001

Jeffery-Tosoni, S., Fraser-Thomas, J., & Baker, J. (2015). Parent involvement in Canadian youth hockey: Experiences and perspectives of peewee players. Journal of Sport Behavior, 38, 3-25.

Keegan, R. J., Harwood, C. G., Spray, C. M., & Lavallee, D. E. (2009). A qualitative investigation exploring the motivational climate in early career sports participants: Coach, parent and peer influences on sport motivation. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10, 361-372. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2008.12.003

Knight, C. J., Boden, C. M., & Holt, N. L. (2010). Junior tennis players’ preferences for parental behaviors. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 22, 377-391. doi:10.1080/10413200.2010.495324

Knight, C. J., & Holt, N. L. (2014). Parenting in youth tennis: Understanding and enhancing children's experiences. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15, 155-164. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.10.010 

Koerner, A. F., & Fitzpatrick, M. A. (2002a). Toward a theory of family communication. Communication theory, 12, 70-91. doi:10.1093/ct/12.1.70

Koerner, A. F., & Fitzpatrick, M. A. (2002b). Understanding family communication patterns and family functioning: The role of conversation orientation and conformity orientation. Communication Yearbook, 26, 37-69. doi:10.1207/s15567419cy2601_2

Koerner, A. F., & Schrodt, P. (2014). An introduction to the special issue on family communication patterns theory. Journal of Family Communication, 14, 1-15. doi:10.1080/15267431.2013.857328

LaVoi, N. M., & Stellino, M. B. (2008). The relation between perceived parent-created sport climate and competitive male youth hockey players' good and poor sport behaviors. The Journal of Psychology, 142, 471-496. doi: 10.3200/jrlp.142.5.471-496 

MacGeorge, E. L., Guntzviller, L. M., Hanasono, L. K., & Feng, B. (2013). Testing advice response theory in interactions with friends. Communication Research, 43, 211–231. doi:10.1177/0093650213510938

Mehrabian, A., & Wiener, M. (1967). Decoding of inconsistent communications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 6, 109-114. doi:10.1037/h0024532

National Council of Youth Sports. (2008). Report on trends and participation in organized youth sport. Stuart, FL: Author. Retrieved from http://www .ncys.org/pdfs/2008/2008-ncys-market-research- report.pdf Nicholls,

Omli, J., & LaVoi, N. M. (2006). Background anger in youth sport: A perfect storm. Journal of Sport Behavior, 32, 242-260.

Omli, J., LaVoi, N. M., & Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M. (2008). Towards an understanding of parent spectator behavior at youth sport events. The Journal of Youth Sports, 3, 30-33.

Pink, D. (Author). (2015, June 30). Why you should always skip your kids’ baseball games. PBS Newshour. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/always-skip-kids-baseball-games/

Ravitch, S. M., & Riggan, M. (2016). Reason & rigor: How conceptual frameworks guide research. Washington, DC: Sage Publications.

Rosa, E. M., & Tudge, J. (2013). Urie Bronfenbrenner's theory of human development: its evolution from ecology to bioecology. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 5, 243-258. doi: 10.1111/jftr.12022 

Dunn, C. R., Dorsch, T. E., King, M. Q., & Rothlisberger, K. J. (2016). The impact of family financial investment on perceived parent pressure and child enjoyment and commitment in organized youth sport. Family Relations, 65, 287-299. doi:10.1111/fare.12193

Sieburg, E. (1985). Family communication: An integrated systems approach. New York, NY: Gardner Press, Inc.

Stafford, L. (2008). Social exchange theories: Calculating the rewards and costs of personal relationships. In L. A. Baxter & D. O. Braithwaite (Eds.), Engaging theories in interpersonal communication: Multiple perspectives, (p. 377-389). Los Angeles, CA: Sage. doi:10.4135/9781483329529.n28

Trenholm, S. & Jensen, A. (2013). Interpersonal communication (7th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Van Swol, L. M. (2011). Forecasting another’s enjoyment versus giving the right answer: Trust, shared values, task effects, and confidence in improving the acceptance of advice. International Journal of Forecasting, 27, 103-120. doi:10.1016/j.ijforecast.2010.03.002

Warner, S., Dixon, M., & Leierer, S. (2015). Using youth sport to enhance parents' sense of community. Journal of Applied Sport Management, 7, 45-63.

 

Endereço: https://doi.org/10.17161/jas.v3i3.6513

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