Development Of Knowledge Test In The Theory Of The Windsurfing Sport

Por: Silja Schroeder.

Athens 2004: Pre-olympic Congress

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Especially trend sports are characterized by a lack of the relation between theory and experience. If physical education is part of university program this fact will be very important. The knowledge of theoretical framework, circumstances and background informations are forcible necessary for a high quality in teaching physical education. The following scientific research develops at first a construct of the theory of the windsurfing sport. Second a knowledge test that is going to be used in the windsurfing instructor education is evolved. The knowledge test is based on the theoretical construct developed in the first part of this study. An item bank shows finally a large number of questions which shall describe the whole theory of the windsurfing sport.


To follow the integration model which was developed by the Institute of Sport and Sport Science at the University of Kiel the theory of the windsurfing sport is divided into nine parts. The nine parts follow a logical, scientific systematology and they need not to be disjunctive: Historical development, social structure and function, health and medical aspects, theoretical aspects of movement, didactical-methodical basics, theoretical aspects of training, aspects of sport equipment, aspects of safety and theoretical aspects of the organization of the sport.

This construct which was developed with experts in the windsurfing sport furnishes the basics for the development of the knowledge test. The knowledge test can be described as a cognitive performance test or as an ability test [2]. The knowledge test is applied to sport students with basic knowledge in the windsurfing sport and to participants of the windsurf instructor education of the Association of German Windsurfing and Water Sport Schools (VDWS). First three pre-tests were planned and tested. The knowledge test consists of 28 exercises which are mostly multiple choice questions.


The third pre-test was analysed in regard to the basic value, the item difficulty and the discrimination power. A distractor analysis and an analysis of homogeneity were carried out. Furthermore the test became examined in respect of the quality criteria of a good test like objectivity, reliability, validity, standardization, comparability, economy and utility. From those results follow a selection and a revision of the questions. As result a final test is given, which is now a fixed element in the windsurfing instructor education of the VDWS.

Discussion / Conclusions

The construct of the theory of windsurfing which was developed in this research furnishes a systematically scientifically orientated structure which can not only be used for the theory of windsurfing but also with a few modifications for other kinds of sport. This transformation is desirable by reason of the lack of theory in the teacher’s education at university and other non universitary institutions. This construct can help to reduce the theoretical lack in the scientific education in sports. Problematically during the test implementation was the small number of experimental subjects with N=50. Additional it is desirable to test the validation with an external criterion and to control the reliability more exactly.


  1. Haag, H. (1983). Texte zur Theorie der Sportarten - Volleyball. Schorndorf: Hofmann.
  2. Lienert, G. A. & Raatz, U. (1998). Testaufbau und Testanalyse. Weinheim: Psychologie Verlags Union.



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