Dietary Intakes An Nutritional Status Of a Team Of Male Water Polo Players

Por: Kalliope Michael-Kleftouri e Penelope Vasiliou.

Athens 2004: Pre-olympic Congress

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Introduction
The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional status of a team of male water polo players. Water polo is a sport that requires strength and endurance and depends largely on cooperative spirit. Little is known about the nutritional status and eating behaviours of water polo athletes. (1)

Methods
The team studied consisted of 13 players, 10 of which agreed to participate in the study. The subjects completed a general health history questionnaire and 3-d food and physical activity records. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, triceps and sub scapular skin folds and mid-upper-arm circumference. Biochemical assessment included parameters for protein, lipid, iron and calcium status.

Results
Two subjects were on a special diet but none was on drug therapy. One athlete used a multi-vitamin supplement, two athletes used a creatine supplement, two athletes were smokers and four of them were alcohol consumers. Mean energy intake was 3791 kcal/d (521), while mean energy expenditure was 4446 (449) kcal/d. The contribution of protein, fat and carbohydrate to total energy was 17 % (3), 32 % (5) and 51 % (5) respectively. Mean protein intake was 1.8 g/kg/d (0.4) and mean carbohydrate intake was 5.4 g/kg/d (0.5). Daily mean intakes of vitamins and minerals are shown in

The age of the subjects ranged from 22 to 26 years. Mean height, weight and body mass index were 1.86 m, 88.8 kg and 25.6 kg/m2 respectively. Mean body fat was 15% and the mean value for MAMC was 30 cm. All mean values for the biochemical indices for nutritional status studied were normal.

Discussion
Mean energy intake was less than mean energy expenditure and all but three athletes were in negative energy balance. Mean energy intake was 43 kcal/kg body weight. Mean carbohydrate intake was lower than the level recommended for strength/endurance athletes while mean protein intake was higher (2). Mean micronutrient intakes were above the recommended values except for vit A. Only three of the athletes had adequate vit A intake. One player did not cover his needs in vit E. Two players did not meet the requirement for vit B6 and one player for vit B2. Nine athletes had adequate intakes of folate. All players had intakes for Fe and Ca above the recommended levels. Anthropometric assessment showed all athletes with high muscle mass while body fat for seven of the athletes was higher than that recommended for strength/endurance athletes. These results indicate that many of the water polo athletes studied had energy and nutrient intakes that do not meet requirements for optimal performance.

References
[1]. www.sportious.gr800*600
[2]. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and the athletic performance, Journal of the American Dietetic Association.2000;100:1543-1556

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