Effects Of An Olympic Education Program On Hong Kong Primary School Physical Education

Por: Ada Chi Wing Wong e C. K. Cheung.

Athens 2004: Pre-olympic Congress

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Introduction
"Olympism" are the reforms in teaching and instruction methods based on the idea of the unity of mind and body in the
development of human beings and self-improvement through participation in sport [2]. In 2000, an Olympic curriculum
project was launched globally based on an international Education Resource Book, Be a Champion in Life [1].
Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an eight-week Olympic Education Program on
primary school physical education students in Hong Kong.

Methods
The total number of participants was 583 students recruited from 6 primary schools. Three classes of each school were
randomly selected and assigned to control, classroom (knowledge only) and gymnasium group (knowledge through
physical activities). Participants of the classroom and gymnasium group were required to attend an 8-week intervention
program with multi-theme of Olympic education. Control group was attended the normal physical education classes
without such themes. Olympic Questionnaire [3] was administrated for the groups before and after an 8-week period.
Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance (RM ANOVA) was conducted for analyzing all dependent variables using
student mean (N = 583).

Results
Significant differences [Group x Time interaction] were found on Olympic knowledge in student-level analyses with
classroom and experimental group scored significantly higher than control group at posttest. A 2 x 3 (Group x Time)
repeated measures analysis of variance (RM ANVOA) was conducted and in student-level (N=583), significant Group x
Time interactions were found for the dependent variable of Olympic knowledge, F (1, 580) = 6.71, p < .01.

Discussion/ Conclusions
Results showed that significant differences were found in Olympic knowledge for classroom and gymnasium group in
student-level analyses. In the pre-test, all three groups could not provide the correct answer for most of the questions.
However, after an intervention program, classroom and gymnasium groups’ students were able answer the questions
correctly and showed better significant improvement than those in control group. To conclude, results of this study
provides solid grounds that a school-based Olympic Education Program can provide an opportunity to improve
student’s Olympic knowledge such as fair play, friendship, peace and international goodwill. Those are important lifelong
concepts for students, combining in a balanced whole, all of the qualities of body and mind, blending sport with
culture and education [2].

References
[1]. Binder, D. (2000). Be a champion in life. Athens: Foundation of Olympic and Sport Education.
[2]. Binder, D. (2001). Quest, 53, 14-34.
[3]. Telama, R., Naul, R., Nupponen, H., Rychtecky, A., & Vuolle, P. (2002). Sport Science Studies: Vol. 11.

NOTA: O texto com a iconografia está no anexo

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