gender differences on cognitive, motivational and affective responses within tanzanian physical education context. an achievement goal approach

Por: Cyprian Maro e Glyn Roberts.

Athens 2004: Pre-olympic Congress

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University of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
2Institute of Social Science, Norwegian University of Sport and Physical Education (PE), Norway

The belief that participation in PE produces favorable cognitive, motivational and affective consequences has been seriously challenged due to increasing number of youth dropouts from sport and physical activity. The study aimed firstly to analyze PE students’ cognitive, behavioral and affective responses to involvement in PE in the framework of the goal orientation model (Roberts, 1992), and secondly to investigate gender differences on study variables
The participants were 221 males and 179 females (14-23 years ) PE students in Tanzania. Standardized questionnaires; Perception of Success, Purpose of Sport, Achievement strategies, Satisfaction and Enjoyment were modified and used in this study and indicated acceptable internal consistencies. (e.g., Roberts et al ,1995; Duda, 1989).
Results Males were higher than females in ego orientation, believed that social status was a more important purpose of PE, and believed more than females that involvement in PE foster lifetime health. Females believed more than males that involvement in PE enhances social responsibility and were higher than males in avoiding practice as an achievement strategy. The canonical functions profiles showed that High task /High ego male related enhancing status, and fostering social responsibility and lifetime health, practice for improvement and teacher compliance as achievement strategy and were satisfied and enjoyed participation. Low task/High ego males indicated a desire to enhance social status, endorsing practice avoidance, inversely related to lifetime health, improvement and teacher compliance and neither were they enjoying nor satisfied. High task/ low ego females positively related to social responsibility, lifetime health, improvement and teacher compliance while negatively related to practice avoidance and were satisfied and enjoyed participation. High task/high ego females related to enhancing social status, fostering social responsibility and lifetime health.
The findings suggest that for the Tanzanian PE students, goal orientation and gender have substantial
influence on individual’s responses in PE. The profiles High task/High ego male and female, Low task/High
ego male and High task/Low ego females revealed the centrality of achievement goal theory for both genders.
The findings have important implications for delivery of PE lessons within African context and consequently
for participative behaviour frequently observed in PE and sport.


[1]. Duda, J. (1989). Journal of Sport & exercise psychology, 11, 318-335
[2]. Roberts, G. (1992). Motivation in Sport & exercise, Champaign, IL, Human Kinetics
[3]. Roberts, G. et al (1995). Perceptual & Motor skills, 81, 219-224







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