Personality Profiles Of Elite Male Wheelchair Basketball Players

Por: James Hilyer e Laurie Malone.

Athens 2004: Pre-olympic Congress

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Studies have examined the relationship between personality and sport performance but little information is available
regarding personality characteristics of wheelchair athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine the personality
traits of elite level wheelchair basketball players.

Twelve candidates for the 2004 USA Men’s Paralympic Wheelchair Basketball Team participated in a 4-day training
camp. The athletes were asked to complete the 16PF® Questionnaire (5th Ed.) and Rotter’s Locus of Control Scale,
which were administered and scored by a licensed psychologist. Individual and team profiles were completed,
including both the sixteen Primary Factors and the five Global Factors measured by the 16PF®. Raw scores were
converted to Standard Ten Scores (STEN) on a 1 to 10 scale. A team mean for each factor was calculated from
individual player STEN scores. Average personality scores on the 16PF® are considered as 2 STENs to either side of the

Rotter’s Locus of Control Scale revealed that the athletes as a group were internally oriented, with a score of 8.9. The
dividing score between internal and external orientation is 9.5. On the 16PF®, team STEN scores for all primary factors
fell within the average range (4-7): Warmth (6), Reasoning (5), Emotional Stability (6), Dominance (5), Liveliness (7),
Rule-Consciousness (6), Social Boldness (6), Sensitivity (5), Vigilance (7), Abstractedness (5), Privateness (6),
Apprehension (7), Openness to Change (6), Self-Reliance (6), Perfectionism (5), and Tension (6). Global factor scores
for the team are presented in Table 1.

The scores on both instruments indicate that this group of elite wheelchair basketball players fell in the average range of
all measured personality traits, with four traits classified as high average (liveliness, vigilance, apprehension, anxiety).
Fifty percent of the players’ scores indicated a tendency toward concrete reasoning, which suggests a need for certain
coaching strategies that are specific and tangible, thereby minimizing anxiety

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