Recreation sports (archery,riding,sailing and cycling) and their adaptation to individuals of special abilities

Por: A. Psofaki, I. Kalliarthou, K. Vardouli e Stefania Vardouli.

Athens 2004: Pre-olympic Congress

Send to Kindle


Elbert Hubbard said that "There is a thing witch is rare and a lot more refined than ability. That is the ability to reorganize ability". Nowadays, individuals of special abilities use sports as a means of resisting and fighting against social stigmatizing, stereotypes and prejudice, in order to gain social approval.


The aim of this project has been to find out, by means of reviewing the relevant bibliography, a way to adapt four kinds of recreation sports, archery, riding, sailing and cycling to individuals of special needs, including cerebral palsy, mental deficiency, deafness, blindness.


The results of our research have been encouraging, since research on this field is increasingly being carried out and more and more sports are included in the programmed of the Para Olympic Games. These activities give great pleasure and satisfaction and they contribute to the individuals physical progress and psychological improvement.


[1.] Axelson P.W, Technology as a Continium fot Recreation, 11th Annual conference on rehabilitation Enginneering (RESNA), Montreal 1988.
[2.] Kegel B., Physical Fitness, spats and recreationfor those with lower limb omputationor impairmend, Journal of Rehabolitation Research and Development, Clinical Supplement, 1985.
[3.] Reekie H.M. Shirley, Sailing made Simple.
[4.] Haywood M. Kathleen, Archery, step to Success.
[5.] Denk Ronald, This is sailing (from Theory to Practice).
[6.] Selma Brandl, This is Riding (from Theory to Practice).
[7.] Koutsouki Dimitra, Special Gymnastics, (Theory-Pracrice).
[8.] Goutziamani-Sotiriadi Konstandinia, Children of special educational needs.
[9.] Aggelopoulou Sakadami N., Special Education- Basic principles and methods.
[10]. Mouratidis Ioannis, The history of physical education (with elements of philosophy).




© 1996-2020 Centro Esportivo Virtual - CEV.
O material veiculado neste site poderá ser livremente distribuído para fins não comerciais, segundo os termos da licença da Creative Commons.