Relation between qualitative aspects of teaching and academic learning time in physical education

Por: Kyriaki Emmanouilidou, Olga Vasiliadou e Vasiliki Derri.

Athens 2004: Pre-olympic Congress

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The purpose of the present study was to identify the relationship between specific qualitative aspects of teaching and Academic Learning Time.


Twelve physical education teachers, with teaching experience more than 5 years in elementary school, and 207 first grade students were the participants. Eight lessons, in which students were taught catching and overhand throwing, were video-, tape-recorded and evaluated with the systematic observation tools a) Qualitative Measures of Teaching Performance Scale (QMTPS, Rink & Werner, 1989) and b) Academic Learning Time-Physical Education (ALT-PE, Parker, 1989).


The correlation analysis indicated a number of significant correlations among the categories of the two instruments. Teacher’s clarity correlates to academic learning time (r=.60, p<.02) and to the time that students were motor engaged (r=.58 p<.03). Also, the number of teaching cues correlates significantly to the technique (r=.71, p<.01) and to the cognitive content of the lesson (r=.58, p<.03). Even more, the accuracy of cues correlates to the technique (r=.56, p=.03) while the qualitative cues to the cognitive content of the lesson (r=.56, p<.03). On the other hand, negative correlations were found between the time allotted to skills’ practice through games and the number (r=-.55, p=.03) and accuracy of teaching cues (r=-.53, p<.04).


It can be concluded that the clear presentation of the activity by the teacher affects positively the time of motor practice as well as the time of successful practice. On the contrary, the qualitative aspects of teaching (number, accuracy and quality of cues) can not affect movement skill learning positively when games or competitive settings are applied in first graders. It seems that in early elementary years movement skills should be practiced through organized activities which allow the teacher to provide qualitative cues to the children.


[1]. Parker, M. (1989). Academic learning time-physical education (ALT-PE). In P. W. Darst, D.B. Zakrasjek, and V.H. Mancini (Eds.) Analyzing physical education and sport instruction (pp 195-205). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
[2]. Rink, J., & Werner, P. (1989). Qualitative measures of teaching performance scale (QMTPS). In P. Darst, D. Zakrajsek, & V. Mancini (Eds.) Analyzing physical education and sport instruction, (pp 269-275). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.




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