Researches on professional sportsmens vocational attitude

Por: Da-xin Li, Hong-xia Song, Qing-yu Wong, Xian-ying Ma e Yi-min Liu.

Athens 2004: Pre-olympic Congress

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Introduction

Compared with other vocations, professional sportsmen’s vocation has such qualities as great labor intensity, easy to be hurt and necessity of reemployment. To obtain great achievements, sportsmen have to vote great physical strength and vigor, suffer unceasing setbacks and failures and face great social pressure. By investigating and studying the professional sportsmen’s vocational attitude in our country, so that instructors and administrating department can accordingly enforce the vocational education to form a good vocational attitude which can be employed as a motive power in training.

Methods

1. Subjects: 351 people from three levels: national teams, provincial or municipal teams and youngster sports school. Among them, 207 are male and 144 are female .Of all these subjects on the 3 levels, 119are master sportsmen, 159 are first-class sportsmen, 59 are second-class sportsmen and 14 are third-class sportsmen. Their events include basketball, volleyball, tracks and fields, swimming, weightlifting, badminton, judo and so on.
2. Methods: A questionnaire is designed with Likert.R.A’s attitude scale. This Questionnaire on Sportsmen’s Vocational Attitude contains 20 items concerning attitude, which are divided into 5 grades. The content validity of the questionnaire is judged and fixed by 12 experts and the validity coefficient is 0.82.We had a reliability test on the internal consistency of the questionnaire withαcoefficient method of Cronbach.L.S, and the reliability coefficient are 0.86.

Results

1. Analysis of the general situation and components of professional sportsmen’s vocational attitude.
In this investigation, the average score of all the subjects is 4.0475, which fix into the "positive grade". According to the theory of "Three components of attitude ", we got the scores of cognition, sentiment and intention. They are respectively 4.0414, 4.1611 and 3.8750. The correlation coefficient of sentiment score and total attitude score is 0.4260 and that of intention and total attitude score is only 0.2522.
2. Analysis and comparison of different sex’s vocational attitude score. After comparing and analyzing, female’ total score and score of all components are both lower than men’s, but on significant difference. (P>0.05)
3. Analysis and comparison of different level’s sportsmen’s vocational attitude and of the components of attitude.After the analysis of variance on sportsmen’s vocational attitude from 3 levels, the master sportsmen, the first and the second class sportsmen, no significant difference is found (P>0.05). After analyzing the 3levels’components of attitude with the same method, on significant difference is found (P>0.05)
4. Analysis and comparison of vocational attitude and its components on quasi-sportsmen from youngster sports school and professional sportsmen. After the mean difference significant testing on the total vocational attitude score and its components, there are all significant differences (P>0.01).

Discussion / Conclusions

1. Generally speaking, the subjects selected this time have a "positive attitude". This reflects that many sportsmen have clear vocational cognition, rich vocational sentiment experience and active behavior intention of taking part in vocational activities. There is also sound consistency and stability among cognition, sentiment and intention. This internally stable and harmonious vocational attitude doubtlessly plays a role of mental guarantee for sportsmen to successfully finish their tasks of training and contesting.
2. Though the vocational attitude score or the female is lower than that of the male, there is no significant difference. This shows women have broken the traditional concept that "contesting sports suit the male gender better than the female". And it also shows that they have formed a sound vocational adaptability.
3. As quasi-professionals, from youngster sports schools have not taken this profession yet so their vocational attitude is only at the initial stage of taking shape.
4. According to this research, professional sportsmen’s vocational attitude score is very high for every age group (from 13 years old to 25), and no age difference is found. This result of research fails to coincide with our hypothesis and the causes are to be found.

References

[1]. William S.Sahakian. History and Systems of Social Psychology . Second Edition. HEMLSPHERE PUBLISHING CORPORATLON. Washington New York London,1982.
[2]. Earl Babbie.The Practice of Social Research .Wadsworth Publishing Company A Division of Thomson Learning.1998.

 

 

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