Sex Characteristics Of Motives In University Sport And Fitness Center

Por: Antonis Tosunidis, Christos Pappas e Georgios Zarotis.

Athens 2004: Pre-olympic Congress

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Introduction
Fitness center and University sport services must be designed on the basis of uses and students needs and motives. The
purpose of this study is to compare the sporting motives of the Fitness center users and the students in the University
sport, focusing on the sex characteristic. This study has worked out a complete profile of motives and illuminates the
facts, which motivate fitness users and university students towards athletic activities.

Methods
3.248 Fitness center users in Germany and 300 University students in Greece participated in the research. They were
asked to fill a questionnaire, which was a five- point statement Likert - type scale with 15 Items. For the processed and
analyzed answers were used descriptive statistics via the SPSS 11. This part of the questionnaire covered seven aspects
of motivation (motive complexes): Fitness / health; appearance / body; psychic experience; knowledge; social aspects;
performance and movement aspects including various single motives in every complex motive.

Results
Comparing the sport Motives, of the University Sport users and the Fitness Sport users, they have generally the same
rank of importance. There is a difference of the importance ranks of the sport motives "Positive influences for body
injuries", "Balance of stress", "Continuous instruction and control of exercise" and "Bodybuilding".

Discussion / Conclusions
In University sport, male students have statistically displayed a significant difference compared to female students as far
as the motives "general improvement of body Fitness", "Positive influences for body inju-ries", "weight loss", "Body
shaping", "Balance of study stress", "Enjoyable and relaxing exercises" and "Information about exercise benefits"
seems to concern them more. In contrast female students have displayed an interest to the motives "Bodybuilding" and
"Improving my sport"[3]. Concluding, in Fitness center sport, the male were moved by the "Cardiovascular health",
"Bodybuilding", "Self-planning of athletics activities", "Executing with a partner", "Athletic performance", "improving
my sport" and "Prepare for my sport" motives. Finally Female Fitness sport user seem to prefer the motives "General
improvement of body Fitness", "Positive influences body injuries", "Weight loss", "Body shaping", "Enjoyable and
relax exercises" and "Continuous instruction and control of exercise" [2].
Looking at the total results of the sample it is evident, that male as well as female students in university and fitness
centres sport have a high "external" motivation, apart from "enjoyable and relax able exercises", which is an intrinsic
motive [1]. But in the long run "external", utilitarian motives are not enough to make someone stick to fitness and
university sports.

References
[1]. Csikszentmihalyi M.(1991): Das Flow - Erlebnis Stuttgart.
[2]. Zarotis G., (1999): Ziel Fitness-Club. Aachen, Edition Sport & Freizeit Band 8. Meyer & Meyer Verlag.
[3]. Tosunidis A.., (2003): Volunteerism - Olympic spirit - University sport. Symposium EUSA 2003 "Universities and
Olympic Idea", In: www.eusa-unisport.org.

NOTA: O texto com a iconografia está no anexo.

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