Study Of Aggression In Athletics Of Several Sport Fields, And Comparing With Non -athletes

Por: Mahdi Kohandel.

Athens 2004: Pre-olympic Congress

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Introduction
In this research, we have studied level of aggression in athletes of several sport fields and compared them with nonathletes.
Aggression is an important problem that increased among the People. Yong offered to increase of aggression in
contact sports this problem is because of professional work and use of financial motivates. Berkowitz believe that
athletes who take part in competitive sports have a low level of aggression versus non-athletes.

Methods:
180 athletes of handball, volleyball, teakwondo, tennis table, gymnastics and track and field, 30 in each group, and 120
non-athletes selected randomly. Athletes in this study are divided in two groups: team sports athletes (handball and
volleyball) and individual sports athletes (teakwondo, tennis table, gymnastics, track and field). For measuring the
aggression level, we used personal deviation questionnaire that define three scales such as: inner punitive, extra
punitive, and dominance. This questionnaire has 36 question that every one has 4 choice: A - always B- almost
C- already D- never. The normal range of aggression is defined 24.

Results
The results of this study indicated that level of aggression in handball athletes with 24.12 were higher versus other
athletes (table 1). Aggression level in all athletes (19.28 ) was lower than non-athletes(27.93) and observed significant
difference between them ( α =0.05). Also athletes in individual sports had lower aggression level versus team sports
athletes (graph 1).

Discussion/conclusion
The results indicated that there are significant difference between athletes and non-athletes. These maters confirm other
done researchers that believed aggression increased among people. Also there was significant difference between
handball athletes and other athletes in this study. These results confirm the effects of contact sports in increasing of
aggression level.

References
[1]. Ceofs . (1997). Hamlin sport aggression and violence. Canadian life PEP (6204) July.
[2]. Graham Robert . B. (1990) Physiologic (Psychology California wad , worth ).
[3]. Singer, Robert M. (1993) Hand book of research on sport Psychology , New York : Macmillan publishing company


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