The adaptation of the achievement motivation in physical education test in th egreek language

Por: A. Patsiaouras, M. Xaritonidi, T. Nishida e Z. Papanikolaou.

Athens 2004: Pre-olympic Congress

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There are very few studies related to the conditions, which take place in physical education classes, and the factors, which influence and motivate the students for the completion of the lessons’ goals. Also, it is concluded that the level of motivation in pupils who participate in sports is higher than that of pupils who don’t [3]. Thus, the development, use and improvement of instruments that can examine the factors that influence the motivation for participation in physical education in schools is a logical necessity. One of these instruments is the Achievement Motivation in Physical Education Test (AMPET), which was translated and adapted, in the Greek language. This questionnaire in its original form was constituted by 64 questions aimed to evaluate the critical processes that lead to the Motivation for participation in physical education in schools. The factors, which are evaluated with this questionnaire, are: a) learning strategy, b) Overcoming obstacles, c) Diligence and seriousness, d) Competence of motor ability, e) Value of learning, f) Anxiety about stressful situations, g) Failure anxiety, h) Lie scale. The AMPET has demonstrated high indicators of internal consistency reliability [1, 2].


1st Phase: Control of content validity
Two bilingual researchers made the translation of AMPET from English to Greek language. The Greek form of AMPET was given to four students (two males and two females) aged 15-17 years in order the formulation and comprehension of the questions to be examined. Afterwards, two independent researchers who didn’t know the original English text of AMPET did the back translation. The two forms of AMPET (English and Greek) were then checked by three independent researchers who were responsible for the control of content validity with the method of structured analysis of content [5]. The appropriate corrections were made, so that the questions could agree conceptually with the represented factors.
2nd Phase procedure - Sample
Forty-one males and females aged 13-18 ± 2,45 years, school students participated in the study. The students completed the questionnaire in the presence of the researcher. After a period of two weeks the participants were asked to recomplete the questionnaire.
Statistical Analysis
Cronbach’s a, Pearson r and Paired Samples t-test were conducted to determine if the variables of the AMPET differentiated significantly between the two measurements [4].


High internal consistency of the eight factors of the AMPET was observed in the first as well in the second measurement (Cronbach’s α varied from .92 to .74 in the pre-test and .93 to .67 in the post-test respectively. The correlation coefficient between the two measurements showed a rather strong relationship (Pearson r=0.627) of the factor examined. The rate of interrelations (Pearson r= 0.627) in the eight factors of AMPET between the 1st and 2nd measurement indicates an intermediate positive linear relation, while for the factor Learning strategy (LS) a lower correlation coefficient was observed (r=0.379*). Finally, with the use of Paired Samples t-test a control of factors of AMPET was carried out between the 1st and 2nd measurement. The results did not show statistically important differences between the two measurements

Discussion / Conclusions

The statistical analysis of the results gave high indicators of reliability for the eight factors of the AMPET. These results are in agreement with the results of the original AMPET. Because of the middle correlation coefficient between the two measurements must be suggested that the questionnaire need to be development. The Greek translation of AMPET can be used as a tool in the evaluation of achievement motivation in physical education in schools.


[1]. Nishida, T. (1988). Reliability and factor structure of the Achievement Motivation in Physical Education Test. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 10, 418-430.
[2]. Nishida, T. (1991). Achievement motivation for learning in physical education class: a cross - cultural study in four countries. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 72, 1183-1186.
[3]. Lazarevic, L., Bacanac, L., Milojevic, A. & Ahmetovic, Z. (2001). The relations between achievement motivation in physical education, self-efficacy, academic success and success in physical education. In: Papaioannou, A., Goudas, M., Theodorakis, Y. (eds). International society of sport psychology, 10th world congress of sport psychology. In the dawn of the new millennium, vol. 5, programme & proceedings (pp. 84-86). Christodoulidi publications, Skiathos.
[4]. Bortz, J. (1993). Statistik. Für Sozialwissenschaftler. 4 Aufl, Berlin: Springer Verlag.
[5]. Weber, R. P. (1990). Basic content analysis. London: Sage.






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