The Effect Of Performance Feedback On Predicting Maximal Oxygen Uptake In Field Testing

Por: A. E. Carrillo, Andreas Flouris, Giorgos Metsios, Yannis Theodorakis e Yiannis Koutedakis.

Athens 2004: Pre-olympic Congress

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Research has provided voluminous evidence suggesting that performance feedback (PF) contributes to goal-setting [1,
2]. The latter has been shown to enhance endurance performance [3], as individuals need to compare given levels of
effort/achievement to the goal they have set for themselves [4]. In contrast, the single set of published data in relation to
field-testing that incorporates shuttle-running, has indicated that PF results in premature participant drop-out [5]. In such
a scenario, the PF incorporated in MST and SST may severely compromise performance, and thus, prediction of
x 2ma O V . Given the dearth of relevant data, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of PF on the
predictive efficacy of both MST and SST.

For the purpose of the study 40 healthy males (age: 21.6±2 years; BMI: 23.7±2 kg/m2) performed in a random order,
five maximal oxygen uptake ( x 2ma O V ) assessments using a treadmill test (TT), the 20m Multistage Shuttle Run Test
(MST), the 20m Square Shuttle Test (SST), as well as a modified version of MST (MSTMD) and SST (SSTMD). During
MST and SST subjects received performance feedback with respect to: a) test stage and b) running pace. In contrast,
MSTMD and SSTMD incorporated auditory feedback which solely included signals regulating the running pace.


Results demonstrated a significant mean x 2ma O V decrement in both MSTMD (p<0.001) and SSTMD (p<0.05) compared
to MST and SST, respectively. Furthermore, predictive efficacy of all field tests against the gold standard measurement
appears in Tables 1 and 2.

It is concluded that the efficacy of the cardiorespiratory fitness field tests studied herein depends largely on the provided
feedback with considerable implications on the prediction of x 2ma O V . Our results suggest that PF is essential for
reaching exhaustion (significantly higher HRmax during both MST and SST than in MSTMD and SSTMD), and thus the
achievement of an accurate x 2ma O V measurement. It is therefore confirmed that the MST and SST protocols -
where subjects receive PF throughout testing - lead to the high levels of effort necessary to obtain valid results.

[1]. Theodorakis, Y. J Appl Sport Psychol, 1996. 8: p. 171-182.
[2]. Lerner, B. and E. Locke. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 1995. 17: p. 138-152.
[3]. Garland, H., et al. Human Kinetics. Champaign, IL: 1988.
[4]. Locke, E. and G. Latham. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1990.
[5]. Wilkinson, D. et al. J Sport Sci, 413-419, 1999. 17: p. 413-419.

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