The Effect Of Playground To The Fundamental Motor Skills Of Kinderkarten Students With And Without Dcd

Por: Dimitra Koutsouki, Emmanouil Skordilis, Katerina Asonitou e Theodora Karzi.

Athens 2004: Pre-olympic Congress

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Introduction
School playgrounds (SPL) provide a variability of moving opportunities for students1. However, children with
developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have not been found to benefit from these opportunities2. Therefore, the
study was designed to examine the effect of SPL and DCD to the fundamental motor skills (FMS) of Greek
kindergarten students. We examined 28 students who were classified according to DCD and SPL. The two independent
variables were: a) DCD and b) SPL. The dependent variables were: a) the locomotive scores of the Test of Gross and
Motor Development (TGMD)3, b) the balance skills of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC)4 and c)
the object control skills of the MABC.

Method
We used the teacher’s judgment to identify children with coordination difficulties. The screening of children with DCD
was confirmed through their MABC scores. For students with DCD, a match paired group of non DCD students, was
examined. All students were examined in the seven locomotive TGMD skills.
Three separate 2 x 2 factorial ANOVA΄s were used for statistical analysis5. We examined the interaction between DCD
and SPL, on their respective FMS scores. We also used independed sample tests.

Results/Discussion
Significant interaction was found (p < .05) between DCD and SPL, with respect to the locomotive TGMD scores. The
differences between groups were wider in the SPL kindergartens. In both environments, the non DCD group scored
significantly higher. Independed sample tests revealed significant differences between SPL and non SPL environments,
for the non DCD group only. Non DCD students had better FMS in kindergartens with SPL compared to the
kindergartens without SPL. The DCD students did not seem to benefit from the presence of the SPL. Intervention
strategies might be needed to ensure their active involvement in SPL in order to promote their FMS.

References
[1]. Barbour, A., C. (1999). The Impact of Playground Design on Play Behaviors of Children with Differing Levels of
Physical Competence. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 14, (1), 75-98.
[2]. Watkinson, E., J., Causgrove Dunn, J., Cavaliere, N., Calzonetti, K., Wilhelm, L. & Dwyer, S. (2001). Engagement
in Playground Activities as a Criterion for Diagnosing Developmental Coordination Disorder. Adapted Physical
Activity Quarterly, 18, 18-34.
[3]. Ulrich, D., A. (1985). Test of Gross Motor Development. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
[4]. Henderson, S., & Sugden, D. (1992). Movement Assessment Battery for Children. London: The Psychological
Corporation Ltd.
[5]. Norusis, M. J. (1993). SPSS for Windows. Professional Sstatistics release 6.0. Chicago: SPSS Inc.

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