The Effects Of Classwide Peer Tutoring On Middle School Students Skill Performance Cognitive And Affective Learning In Volleyball Overhead Toss

Por: Byungha Joo, Eunchang Kwak, Onseo Park e Younghee Ko.

Athens 2004: Pre-olympic Congress

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Introduction
Peer tutoring roles in CWPT are designed to be reciprocal; that is each student serves as both the tutor and the tutee
during CWPT session. Although considerable research has been conducted to determine the effects of classwide peer
tutoring in academic contexts, very limited number of studies have been made in the field of physical education.
Despite some studies for peer tutoring, there is little empirical evidence that it is an effective strategy in normal physical
education. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of classwide peer tutoring in physical
education versus traditional teaching group.

Methods
The participants were 80 students who agreed to participate voluntarily in the study and their parents gave written
consent form for them to do so. Subjects were selected after a pilot test from the seventeen physical education classes.
Data were collected for all 12 lessons of the unit. The dependent variables used in this study were (a) the correct
performance of volleyball toss, (b) the information remembered, and (c) learning attitude. The IOA were 90% for the
correct performance analysis, and 97%, 92% for cognitive information and attitude analysis. Mann-Whitney
nonparametric test was used to assess the impact of experimental conditions on CWPT, overall process characteristic
scores for volleyball toss. Pre and post test scores on process characteristics and information and attitude were used as
the baseline for this analysis to compare the effect of achievement level on each independent variables.

Results
The results of the study indicated that there were no significant differences between two experimental groups in pre test
in all three dependent variables. However, CWPT group performed better than Traditional Group(TG) in volleyball
toss, the information remembered, and learning attitude in post test. Especially, female students in CWPT outperformed
male students in TG.

Discussion / Conclusions
The result of the study implies that CWPT can be an effective teaching strategy for general physical education
class. CWPT offered the increased the proportion of instructional time that all students engage in academic
behaviors and to provide pacing, feedback, immediate error correction, high mastery levels, and content coverage.
However, although this study showed CWPT’s effectiveness, it is not yet a complete, comprehensive system of
instruction. More research are needed to facilitate the implementation and monitoring of CWPT in physical
education classes.

References
[1]. Fantuzzo, J. F., Gwendolyn, Y. D., & Ginsbburg, M. D.(1995). Journal of Educational Psychology, 87, 272-281.
[2]. Greenwood, C. R., Carta, J. J., & Hall, R. V.(1988). 17, 258-275.
[3]. Houston-Wilson, et al. (1997). Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly,. 14, 298-313.
[4]. Topping K., & Ehly, S. (1998). Peer assisted learning. London: Lawrence Erlbaum.

NOTA: O texto com a iconografia está no anexo.

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