The Influence Of Verbal Feedback Manipulationon Childrens Self-concept

Por: G. Grouios, H. Tsorbatzoudis e P. Zahariadis.

Athens 2004: Pre-olympic Congress

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Introduction
Physical education teachers’ verbal feedback is mainly responsible for the formation of motivational climate in physical
education classes. According to Self Determination Theory [1] information can be perceived either as controlling or
informational. Feedback is more effective when it is informational. Research evidence enhances physical education
teachers’ notion that feedback having the form of positive reinforcement and anticipation of students’ performance
during class, enhances performance and learning process [2]. [3] examined the role of feedback to children adaptation
of learning. The study included 124 P.E. teachers in primary school and resulted in the prevailing role of individualised,
positive and prescriptive feedback to students’ better learning. By diversifying the feedback direction towards the
individual and towards the group, the teacher would be more likely to put the message across all the pupils. Eventually,
the study pointed out the connection between the number of positive evaluations, the prevailing positive aspect of the
feedback, and pupil’s feeling of help, on one hand and on the other hand their satisfaction with the whole lesson.).
Research focused on the manipulation of motivational climate during physical education classes showed that task
oriented, autonomous environment enhances students’ self perceptions [4] and satisfaction [5]. Aim of the present study
was to detect differences in motivation, physical self-concept and perceived satisfaction to physical education classes,
after the manipulation of motivational climate.

Methods
Six hundred Greek high schoolboys and 554 schoolgirls participated in the study (Mage= 13.45±1.05). Greek high
school has three grades (1st grade=12-13, 2nd grade=13-14 and 3rd grade=14-15 years old).
Instruments: a) TEOSQ [6] was used to measure achievement goal orientations. b) SMS [7] measures three dimensions
of motivation. c) PSDQ [4] assessed the physical self-concept. d) PESS [5] assesses students’ perceived satisfaction. e)
A scale from ΙΜΙ [8] was used to assess perceived competence. f) Teacher’s Feedback Observation Protocol [9] to
assess the following ten dimensions of verbal feedback offered by P.E. teachers during the class. Intervention program:
The six-month intervention had pre and post measurement of the variables to three equal groups of students: a) an ego
oriented-controlling feedback group, b) a task
oriented-informational feedback group and c) a
control group. A two week time interval between
observations was taken. Observations were
applied for all classes taught by 9 P.E. teachers
(three for each group) who participated in the
study. The observation schedule included
observations for two classes of each grade. The
observers were different for every observation so
that maximum objectivity could be ensured.

Results
ANOVA results (F(2,675)=36.7, p<.0, η2=.34) were significant to the different groups (see table).

Discussion/ Conclusions
Task oriented climate was found to foster I.M. toward knowledge, physical self-perceptions and satisfaction. The results
of the present study are in line with previous studies in physical education and collegiate sport and exercise [3]. Task,
autonomy oriented environment enhances students’ physical self-concept and perceived satisfaction during physical
education classes. The present study indicates that teacher’s verbal feedback play a significant role to class motivational
climate. Positive autonomy oriented verbal feedback increases students’ self-determination and self-perceptions. Thus,
it is underlined the need for curriculum reformation in order to make physical education classes more enjoyable and
self-fulfilling to students.

References
[1] Vallerand. J. L., & Rousseau, F. L. (2001). In Singer, R.N., Hausenblas, H.A., & Janelle C.M. (Ed.), Handbook of Sport
Psychology, 2nd edition, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Pp. 389-417.
[2] Williams, L. (1994). Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 16, 416-430.
[3] Swalus, P., et al., (1991). Revue-des-sciences-et-techniques-des-activites-physiques-et-sportives, 12 (24), 23-35.
[4] Marsh, H.W., et al., (1994). Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 16, 270-305.
[5] Zahariadis, P., et al., (1999). Exercise and Society, 7th International Congress on P.E. and Sport, Pp. 201.
[6] Duda, J., & Nicholls, J. (1992). Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 290-299.
[7] Pelletier, L.G., et al., (1995). Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 17, 35-53.
[8] McAuley, E., et al., (1989). Research Quaterly for Exercise and Sport, 60, 48-58.
[9] Sluiss, M. L. (1999). Unpublished Master thesis. University of Jyvaskyla. Finland.

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