The Structure Analysis Of Physical Education Female Students Psychological Characteristics

Por: Aleksander Milojevic, Dijana Radisavljevic, Ruzena Popovic e Sladjana Jovanovic.

Athens 2004: Pre-olympic Congress

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Introduction

Hypothesis about the relationship between cognitive abilities, personality characteristics and sports success comes from the previous researches, which confirmed that there was the link between intelligence and success in solving the complex motor tasks. Also, some non-systematic observations of sport experts point out that in regard with the high level athletes, apart from physical, technical and tactical preparation, some other factors, defined as a quick capability for solving the complex motor tasks play a big part. The basic research aim of this study is to establish the level and structure of intellectual abilities and personality traits of Yugoslav and foreign Physical Education (PE) female students.

Methods

This research has been carried out on the sample of 55 home country PE female students and 41 foreign citizens. For the general cognitive ability estimation the Raven’s progressive matrixes were applied. The commonly known fact is that this psychological instrument estimates exclusively General factor of intelligence and particularly visual spatial factor. For the personality characteristics estimation the Eysenck’s EMPI (Personality Inventory) and the Cornell Index (C.I.-N4) were applied. The research results were processed with basic descriptive statistics; parallel (t-test) and multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) as well as discriminate, and factor analysis.

Results

The results analysis, elaborated by MANOVA, as well as discriminate analysis, indicate that two examined groups significantly differ regarding the estimated level of intellectual abilities, and personality features (F=2.01; p=.00) The Raven’s progressive matrix results point out that cognitive abilities are in the range of average to the above-average values, and examined groups significantly differ, with better scores of home country female students. The personality features results, taken by EMPI, point out those two examined groups of Physical Education female students significantly differ only in the established level of neuroticism. On the sample of foreign Physical Education female students was recognized a neurotic tendency whose values are common. Referring to next applied psychometric instrument (Cornell Index) the following variables (of 12) contributes most to the differences between examined groups: PRND-paranoid tendencies (-. 07), ANXT-anxiety tendencies (-. 05), and HIPH-hypochondriac tendencies(-. 03). The structure of cognitive abilities and personality features of the home country and foreign PE female students was established by factor analysis, which produces five latent dimensions (factors) explained and defined as the 1st bipolar factor: extroversion - neuroticism (on the negative pole it is best defined with the variables for the estimation of neuroticism, anxiety, depressive tendency and obsessive-compulsive tendency) than followed 2nd factor of general cognitive abilities or G-factor of intelligence; the 3rd  factor was defined as factor of insecurity (or unsuitability) mostly by 3 variables with negative sign, which are related to the phobic, cardio-vascular, and inhibitory tendencies; the 4th factor (weakly defined) and referred to as a factor of higher sensibility or emotional factor, and finally the 5th factor,  defined exclusively by the negative sign  of variables, related to the hypochondriac, gastrointestinal, impulsive, and aggressive tendencies.

Discussion / Conclusions

Two examined sub-samples of Physical Education female students statistically differ to a considerable proportion, according to the applied multiple analysis of variance, as well as discriminate analysis, which points out that those differences refer mostly to the variables for the estimation of cognitive abilities (The Raven’s progressive matrix).

References

[1]. Bosnar K. & Horga S. (1981). Analiza nekih rezultata u testovima kognitivnih sposobnosti i testovima ličnosti dobijenim na perspektivnim sportašima SR Hrvatske.  Kineziologija, Vol. 12(1-2), 69-76.

[2]. Eysenck H.J. (1973). Race Intelligence and Education, Temple Smith LTD, London.

[3]. Ismail, H.H. (1976). Relationships between intellectual and non-intellectual performance (in Serbo-Croatian) Kineziologija, Vol. 7(1-2) pp.47-58.

[4]. Popović R. & Milojević A. (1996). Intellectual abilities and characteristics of personality of Physical Education female students 4thInternational Congress on Physical Education & Sport, Komotini (Greece), Abstracts, p. 123.

[5]. Popović R., Milojević A. & Vasović G. (1996). Relation between intellectual abilities, personality features and successful adopting of Rhythmic-Sports Gymnastics Teaching Program, 5th International Scientific Conference "FIS Communications ‘96" Nis, Serbia (Yugoslavia) Collection of Papers, pp. 133-136.

[6]. Vanek M., Hošek V. & Svoboda A. (1974). Studie osobnosti ve sportu. Univerzita Karlova, Praha.

 

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