Value orientations of physical education teachers: a chinese perspective

Por: Amy Sau Ching Ha, Ben-li Xu e Nyit Chin Keh.

Athens 2004: Pre-olympic Congress

Send to Kindle


In the area of physical education, the most frequently used classification scheme includes five value orientations namely disciplinary mastery (DM), self-actualization (SA), social responsibility (SR), learning process (LP), and ecological integration (EI). While there have been numerous studies undertaken in many parts of the world [1,2,4], it appears that there has been relatively little research on the subject conducted in Chinese societies.


Collection of the data was achieved by means of the application of the revised Value Orientation Inventory (VOI), a 90-item pencil and paper instrument developed to examine the value orientations of physical education teachers [3]. The sample was obtained from teachers who were working either in Hong Kong, Taiwan or Shanghai, an allocation of 300 subjects from each city. Descriptive statistics were computed for each of five value orientations across the whole sample in terms of gender and school levels.


Results showed that Shanghai teachers placed a significantly higher priority on self-actualization (p<.05) and placed a significantly lower priority on social responsibility (p<.05) than their Hong Kong and Shanghai counterparts. Conversely, Taiwan physical educators emphasized a significantly higher value on disciplinary mastery than their Hong Kong and Shanghai counterparts (p<.05). In terms of gender comparison among the three districts, Taiwanese female teachers prioritized a significantly higher score on disciplinary mastery than female teachers from Shanghai and Hong Kong. Male teachers, regardless of district, placed a high priority on disciplinary master and a low priority on social responsibility. With respect to school levels’ comparison, all secondary physical educators of the three districts consistently placed a high priority on disciplinary mastery orientation. Ultimately, Hong Kong and Taiwanese primary schoolteachers emphasized the importance of promoting social responsibility through physical education while Shanghai teachers placed self-actualization as their top priority.


Concerns about the community and school environments in which students live and learn may require an emphasis on orientations that place the individual or the context in a higher priority than mastery of movement and sport. Those students who live in urban centers such as Hong Kong, Taiwan and Shanghai, tend to exercise less because of other diversions such as watching TV, playing computer games or being involved in other sedentary activities. It is important that physical educators reflect on their curriculum value orientation and should apply critical thinking to the selection and design of curriculum in order to provide appropriate, as well as valuable learning experiences for their students.


[1]. Behets, D. (2001). Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 20, 144-154.
[2]. Curtner-Smith, M., & Meek, G. (2000). European Physical Education Review, 6(1), 27-45.
[3]. Ennis, C., & Chen, A. (1993). Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 64, 436-446.
[4]. Ennis C., & Chen, A. (1995). Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 66, 41-50.



© 1996-2021 Centro Esportivo Virtual - CEV.
O material veiculado neste site poderá ser livremente distribuído para fins não comerciais, segundo os termos da licença da Creative Commons.