The purpose of this study was to measure and compare BMD of dominant and non - dominant arms (radius ) of female
athletes participating in racquet and non - racquet sports .The result was also compared with the standards of the world
for non athlete female .

female athletes (between 20 to 25)are selected to approach this study. They all are members of Iranian swimming 23
,Tennis ,Table tennis or gymnastic national teams and have sport activities at least for 10 years,3 days a week. The
persons selected for this study have filled the related questioners . The questioners show that they have no problem
which might affect their bone mineral density . BMD was measured in two areas of the body(left and right Radius) for
each person using DEXA method .the standard values of BMD in the world for non athlete females in that range of age
were considered .statistical analysis was performed on data (p<0.05) .

Findings of this study show that the BMD of both arms of female athletes in Iranian national teams is lower than the
standard values of BMD for non athlete female in the world .But the difference between the BMD for arms of the
gymnasts and also table tennis players and the values of BMD in the world was not significant
Values of BMD in both arms of gymnasts was significantly higher than both arms of other groups of athlete in this
. study
Comparing the differences in BMD of two arms ,between athletes in the racquet sport , non- racquet sports and
.standard of non-athletes in the world , showed that it is more in racquet sports

Our result in comparing the BMD of dominant and non-dominant arms in athletes and non-athletes , was the same as
studies by Haddlestion [1], and Kannus [2]. Research by Grandhad [3] ,and Robinson [4] have also showed that in
gymnastic activities the stress on bone is 10 to 12 times more than the stress caused by weight of body and this result
supports our findings .
As a result , unilateral activities ,such as tennis and table tennis , in high intensity and long duration , increase BMD in
dominant arm more than non-dominant arm .In this study , it seems that gymnastic increases BMD more than other
sports .. In addition , the BMD( in Radius) of young female athletes who participates in notional teams , is lower than
standard of the world

[1]Haddlestion AL(1990) ,JAMA,224: 1107-9 .
[2]Kannus PH (1994) ,Bone,15:249-284 .
[3]Grandhad H : Spine , 1987 ; 12 : 146- 14 .
[4]Roobinson T (1995), J Bone mineral Research,10:26-35 .

NOTA: O texto com a iconografia está no anexo