Epidemiological study has found that physical activity can reduce the incidence of diabetes, hypertension, and coronary heart diseases. Recently, several genes related to fat and carbohydrate metabolism has found to be regulated by exercise training. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to determine the exercise-responsive gene from a thousands of genes expressed in blood cell with DNA microarray technique.
Twenty exercise-trained and untrained subjects participated this study. Total RNA was isolated from 10 ml of human fasted blood sample. The RNA samples were extracted from both groups and were determined on an ABC Human UniversoChip coated with more than 7000 specific probes.
We found that the mRNA level of 21 genes in trained subjects was greater than those in sedentary controls. Most of these genes were associated with energy metabolism and iron transport system. Several isoforms of hemoglobin subunit and several mitochondria proteins related to substrate oxidation were found greater in trained individuals than those in sedentary controls.
This preliminary result suggests that genes related to oxygen transport could be elevated by exercise training. Since iron plays important role in synthesis of myoglobin, hemoglobin, and mitochondrial electron transport proteins. Coordinated elevation in iron transport system appears to be essential for the exercise training adaptation for enhancing energy metabolism.