Historical review The philosophy of is deeply rooted in European body concepts in relation to a holistic model of the human being since antiquity. Already the ancient Greeks considered with the ideal of “Kalakogathia” that the perfection of the human being is to a large extend based on physical fitness practised by exercises called “Gymnastic” and carried out by special schools, called “Gymnasion”. In the middle ages the body concepts had been dominated by the Christian religion, which had in those times a bad relation to the body. The body was “seat of the sin”. So no positive concept of physical exercises was existent in the middle ages and at the beginning of modern ages.